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Audel electrical course for apprentices and journeymen - Rosenberg P.

Rosenberg P. Audel electrical course for apprentices and journeymen - Wiley & sons , 2004. - 424 p.
ISBN: 0-764-54200-1
Download (direct link): audelelectricalcourseforapprentices2004.pdf
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S
Scott connection, 299-300 screws, torquing values for, 382 second (s), 14
secondary cells, 120, 122-127 actions in, 122-123 secondary winding, 281 self-induction, 188-190 series circuits, resistances in, 103-104 series generators, 213 series motors, 217-220 field strength of, 219 versus shunt motors, 217, 218 speed regulation of, 219 starting, 219
series-parallel circuits, 107 resistances in, 107-108 short-circuit current, 288 shunt circuit. See parallel circuit shunt generators, 213 shunt motors, 217-220 double torque in, 219 versus series motors, 217, 218 speed regulation of, 219 signaling system outlets, graphic electrical wiring symbols for in institutional, commercial, and industrial occupancies, 31-36
in residential occupancies, 36-37 sine wave, formation of, 202-203 single-phase motors, 343-351 capacitor-start, 347, 349 capacitor-start, capacitor-run, 347-348, 349 hysteresis, 345 phase splitting in, 343-344 repulsion, 348, 350 repulsion-induction, 350-351 rotating fields in, 343 shading-coil, 344-345 split-phase induction, 345-347, 348 universal, 345 six-phase mercury-arc rectifier, 371-372 skin effect, 97 slip, 317
soil resistivity, 354-355, 364-366 solenoids, 135-136 air-core, 140-141 iron-core, 140-141 principle of, 136 special purpose outlets,
abbreviations for, 23-24 square mil, 91-95 squirrel cage rotor windings, 316-320 static electricity, 4 static transformers. See transformers stator, 198
402 Index
step-down transformer, 279 step-up transformer, 279 storage cells, 123-124 Edison, 125-127 equations for, 124-125 specific gravity of, 125 state of charge, measuring, 125 sulfur-acid solution in, 126 See also secondary cells strength of a magnet, 68 superconductivity, 99 switches, graphic electrical wiring symbols for, 57 switch outlets, graphic electrical wiring symbols for, 31 symbols, electrical, 21-62 synchronous capacitors,, 251 339-340 synchronous motors, 337-342 angle of lag and, 337, 340-342 characteristics of, 337 operation of, 337-339 phase angles and loads on, 341 power factor of, 338 principle of, 337-338 regulation of, 340-342 similarity to alternator, 337 squirrel cage windings in, 338 use with utility lines, 339-340 variance of power factor of, 339
T
temperature, units of, 18 temperature coefficients for insulation, 175-176 Tesla, Nikola, 313 testing insulation resistance, 171-185 thermocouples, 169-170 thermopiles, 169 thermostats, 169 Thompson, Sir William, 161 Thompson mirror galvanometer, 161
three-phase, four-wire systems,
269-274
three-phase power transformation using single-phase transformers, 295-297, 299 delta-delta connected 295, 297 delta-wye connected, 299 with a ground, 297 with a neutral, 297 open-delta connected, 295-297 using a three-phase transformer, 297-299 three-phase systems, 257-261 three-phase transformers delta-delta, 297-298 delta-wye, 299, 300 wye-wye, 298 torque, 155
torque tests (for fasteners), 381-382 torquing values, tables of,
381-382 transformer booster, 305-306 and safety issues, 305-306 transformers additive polarity, 291 and altitude, 290 and ambient temperature, 290-291 askarel-filled, 290 assembly of cores in, 287 basic principles, 279-284 common core configurations of, 285-287 compared to induction coil, 277 compared to shunt motor, 280-281 composition of cores in,
285-287 dry, 290
effect of load on secondary, 282 as emergency boosters, 305-306 formulas related to, 287-288, 293
graphic electrical wiring symbols for, 58-62 impedance in, 287 inrush of current in, 282
Index 403
insulation, 289 laminations, 285-287 losses in, 285 magnetic flux in cores of,
286-287 mutual induction in, 280 oil-filled, 290 in parallel, 289 polarity checks, 291-292 short-circuit current and, 288 step-down, 279 step-up, 279 subtractive polarity, 291 termination markings, 292-293 types of, 290 voltage drop in, 287 voltage induced in, 281, 284 windings of, 281, 283 transmission paths, graphic electrical wiring symbols for, 55-56 true power formulas related to, 229-230, 232-233 applied, 230-232 meter readings and, 229 and power factors, 229-232 two-phase power transformation, 295
two-phase systems, 255-257 two-phase to three-phase power transformation, 299-300
U
Uffer ground, 356 units
definitions of, 13-18 fractional parts of, 15 fundamental, 13 magnetic, 17-18 multiples of, 15 unity power factor, 230
V
volt (V), 16 Volta, Alessandro, 117 voltage drop in armature, 211 calculation of, 99-100 voltage testers, 164-165 voltaic cells, 117-118 volt-amperes (VA), 16 voltmeters, 163, 164-168 in circuit, 167 clamp-on, 166
electrodynamometer type, 165 recording, 166-167 values read by, 201-202
W
watt (W), 16 watt-hours and joules, 156 metered, 156-157 wattless current, 248 wattless power, 248 wattmeters, 165-168 in circuit, 168 recording, 166-167 watts, measuring in DC circuits, 168 weight, 13-14 wild leg, 297 wire gauge, 101 work, 151-152 wye connection of alternators, 257-258
Z
zero-sequence transformers,
310-312 zero temperature coefficient defined, 91
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