Download (direct link):
The MPLS and Frame Relay Alliance is an industry-wide association of networking and telecommunication companies focused on advancing the deployment of multi-vendor multiservice label switching networks and associated applications. The Forum provides a meeting ground for companies that are creating MPLS and frame relay products and deploying MPLS and frame relay networks and services.
Through the efforts of its three working committees, the Alliance encourages: (a) input to the development of standards throughout the various industry standards groups; (b) the creation of Implementation Agreements, based upon appropriate standards, on how to build and deliver MPLS and frame relay networks and services; (c) the definition of interoperability test suites and coordination of interoperability events to demonstrate the readiness of MPLS for network deployments; (d) the creation and delivery of educational programs to educate the industry about MPLS and frame relay technologies, services and solutions; and (e) building the awareness of MPLS as a technology ready for wide-scale deployment within service provider networks to deliver profitable services to the end-user community.
1.4.8 The Optical Internetworking Forum (OIF)
OIF was founded in 1988. It is the only industry group uniting representatives from data and optical networks. Its goal is the development and deployment of interoperable products and services for data switching and routing using optical networking technologies. OIF consists of working groups that focus on different topics, such as architecture; physical and link layer; operations administration, maintenance and provisioning (OAM&P); signaling; carrier-related requirements; and interoperability.
OIF encourages cooperation among telecom industry participants, such as equipment manufacturers, telecom service providers, and end users, and it promotes global
development of optical internetworking products. It also encourages input to appropriate national and international standards bodies, and identifies, selects, and augments as appropriate and publishes optical internetworking specifications drawn from national and international standards.
1.4.9 The DSL Forum
The ADSL Forum was established in 1994; in 1999, it was renamed to the DSL Forum. The goals of the Forum is to provide a complete portfolio of digital subscriber line technologies designed to deliver ubiquitous broadband services for a wide range of situations and applications.
The Forum consists of the technical working groups: architecture and transport, autoconfiguration, operations and network management, testing and interoperability, and voice over DSL (VoDSL). It also consists of the marketing working groups: ambassador program, deployment council, marketing interoperability and qualification, summit and best practices, and tradeshows.
Outcomes of the DSL Forumís work are published as technical reports and are available through the Forumís Web site.
1. Visit the Web sites of some of the Standards bodies. Familiarize yourself with their organizational structure and the type of standards that are available on these Web sites.
2. Let us assume that the routing tables in an IP administrative domain remain unchanged for a long time. In this case, the path between any two computers, say A and B, within the same domain will not change. Therefore, all of the packets sent from A to B will follow the same path. Can we say that during that time, the IP network behaves like a connection-oriented packet-switching network? Why?
3. Explain why bursty data transmission over a circuit-switching network leads to a poor utilization of the connection.
SONET/SDH and the Generic Frame Procedure (GFP)
So far, we have witnessed the development of three generations of digital transport technologies for telephony: PDH, SONET/SDH, and G.709. The first generation of digital transport technology was the plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH), of which the North American standard T1 and the ITU-T equivalent standard E1 are probably the most well-known transport schemes. T1/E1 was first deployed in the early 1960s to transport voice traffic.
The synchronous optical network (SONET) was proposed by Bellcore (now Telecordia) in 1985, and it can be seen as the second generation of digital transport networks. SONET was designed to multiplex PDH signals and transmit them optically between equipment made by different manufacturers. SONET was not designed, however, to address the needs of the European community, which used the ITU-T plesiochronous digital hierarchy. In view of this, ITU-T adopted the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) as the international standard. SONET is compliant with SDH. SONET and SDH were also defined to carry ATM cells and PPP and HDLC frames.
The third generation digital transport network is the ITU-T standard G.709, otherwise known as the digital wrapper. This is a new standard that takes advantage of the wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technology. It can carry IP packets, ATM cells, Ethernet frames, and SONET/SDH synchronous traffic.