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Electronics for dummies - McComb G.

McComb G., Boes E. Electronics for dummies - Wiley publishing, 2005. - 433 p.
ISBN: 0-7645-7660-7
Download (direct link): electronicsfordummies2005.pdf
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Look at the following criteria before choosing a solar panel for your project:
Do you plan to have the solar panel in sunlight when you want the gadget to be on?
If not, look for another power source. Or, if you want to get fancy, design the gadget so that the solar cell provides a charge to the batteries to power the gadget even when itís dark.
Is a solar panel that provides enough power small enough to fit on your gadget?
If not, redesign the gadget to take less power or look for another power source.
Turning Electricity On and Off
Youíve scrounged around your growing electronics bin and come up with wires to connect a circuit together and batteries to power the circuit. So how do you turn the power on and off? You use switches and relays, which we cover in the following sections.
Turning current on and off with switches
When you move the switch to shut off your flashlight, you disconnect the wires that run from the battery to the light bulb. All switches do the same thing: Connect wires to allow electric current to flow or disconnect wires to stop electric current from flowing.
When you turn off your flashlight, you put the switch in what is called the open position. With the switch in the open position, you have a disconnected wire, and no current can flow. When you turn on the flashlight, you put the switch in the closed position. With the switch in the closed position, youíve connected the wire (and completed the circuit), and current can flow.
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104 Part II: Aisle 5, Component Shack: Stocking Up
Starting with simple switches
Your flashlight usually comes with something called a slide switch. With a slide switch, you slide the switch forward or backward to turn the light on or off. You can see some other types of switches (toggle, rocker, and leaf switches) in Figure 5-6.
Figure 5-6:
From top to bottom: two toggle switches, a rocker switch, and a leaf switch.
Toggle, rocker, and slide switches all do the same job, so grab whatever switch you have handy that you can easily use on the project that youíre building. For example, a slide switch works well on a round, handheld flashlight because of the position of your thumb, but a toggle switch may work best to flip on a gadget sitting on your workbench.
Want to see a leaf switch in action? In chapter 15 we describe how you can use a leaf switch like a car bumper that tells a robot when itís bumped into something. Push-button switches come in three versions:
Normally closed (NC): This push-button switch disconnects the wire only when you push the button.
^ Normally open (NO): This push-button switch connects the wire only when you push the button.
Push on/Push off buttons: This switch connects the wire with one push and disconnects the wire with the next. term LinG - live, informative, Non-cost and Genuine !
Chapter 5: Filling Out Your Parts Bin 105
You typically find push-button switches in electronics to start or stop a circuit. For example, you press a normally open push-button switch to ring a doorbell.
What's inside a switch?
You call the basic switches that we talk about in the previous section singlepole single-throw, or SPST types. Donít worry about all the different names:
In essence, these switch types have one wire coming into the switch and one wire leaving it.
Just to keep your electronics life interesting, you may come across other types of switches that are wired a bit differently, called double pole. Where single pole switches have one input wire, double pole switches have two input wires. With single throw switches you can connect or disconnect each input wire to one output wire, while double throw switches allow you to choose which of two output wires you connect each input wire to.
There are a few single- and double-pole variations, including
^ Single-pole double-throw (SPDT): In this switch, one wire comes into the switch and two wires leave the switch. When you want to choose what device a circuit turns on (for example, a green light to let people know that they can enter a room or a red light to tell them to stay out), use an SPDT switch.
^ Double-pole single-throw (DPST): This switch has two wires coming into it and two wires leaving. You can use a DPST switch to control two separate circuits. For example, you can have one circuit with components running on 5 volts and another circuit with components running on 12 volts. With one switch, you can turn both circuits on or off.
^ Double-pole double-throw (DPDT): This switch has two wires coming into it and four wires leaving. A DPDT switch has three positions. In the first position, the first pair of output wires connect. In the second position, all four output wires disconnect (some DPDT switches do not have this position). In the third position, the second pair of output wires connect. You can use this type of switch to reverse the polarity of DC voltage going into a motor so that the motor turns in the opposite direction. (One position makes the motor turn clockwise, one position turns off power to the motor, and one position turns the motor counterclockwise.)
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