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Electronics for dummies - McComb G.

McComb G., Boes E. Electronics for dummies - Wiley publishing, 2005. - 433 p.
ISBN: 0-7645-7660-7
Download (direct link): electronicsfordummies2005.pdf
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The clocking notch orients the chip at the 12 oclock position.

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PIN NUMBERS
PIN NUMBERS
You can always make a reference copy of the pinout, even if the schematic includes the pin numbers. With this copy, you can double-check your work (and the schematic) to help ensure accuracy. The schematic may have numbered the pins incorrectly, and you can save yourself a lot of trouble and frustration by checking the schematic against the pinout diagram.
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Exploring ICs on your own
Theres more to integrated circuits than we can possibly cover in this book.
If youre interested in learning more, see the Appendix. Youll find interesting Web sites that provide useful how-to info for using various popular ICs in working projects.
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92 Part II: Aisle 5, Component Shack: Stocking Up
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Chapter 5
Filling Out Your Parts Bin
In This Chapter
^ Picking the perfect type of wire ^ Powering up with batteries and solar cells ^ Flipping switches ^ Controlling output with logic gates ^ Tuning signals with inductors and crystals ^ Making sense of things with sensors ^ Exploring how DC motors work ^ Making some noise with speakers and buzzers
lthough the resistors, capacitors, diodes, and transistors that we discuss in Chapter 4 are pretty darn important (youd have trouble finding a circuit in the world that you can build without them), you need to know about some other parts that you make use of in your electronics career.
Some of these other parts, such as wires, connectors, and batteries are pretty essential. After all, youd be hard put to build an electrical circuit without wires to connect things together or a source of power to make things run.
You use some other parts that we discuss in this chapter only now and then for certain circuits; for example, you dont want to use one of those annoying buzzers on every circuit that you build, but when you want to make noise, they come in handy.
In this chapter, we discuss a mixed bag of parts, some of which you need to stock up on right away, and others you can leave until you need them.
Making the Connection
Making a circuit requires that you connect components to allow electric current to flow between them. The following sections describe wires, cables, and connectors that allow you to do just that.
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Part II: Aisle 5, Component Shack: Stocking Up
Wire
Wire that you use in electronics projects is just a long strand of metal, usually made of copper. The wire has only one job to allow electrons to travel through it. However, you can find a few variations in the types of wire available to you. In the following sections, we talk about which type of wire you use for different situations.
Stranded or solid wire?
Cut open the cord of any old household lamp (make sure that youre ready to junk it and unplug it first!!), and you see two or three small bundles of very fine wires, each wrapped in insulation. This is called stranded wire. If, on the other hand, you have only one wire on its own, instead of a bundle of wires, you call it solid wire. You can see examples of stranded and solid wires in Figure 5-1.
INSULATION
SEVERAL FINE WIRES
STRANDED WIRE
Figure 5-1:
Do you think wire is just wire? Think again. Here are two types.
INSULATION
SINGLE WIRE
SOLID WIRE
When do you use each type of wire? Its not as complicated as you may think: You use stranded wire in projects where the wire will be moved around. For example, you use stranded wires for multimeter leads because you move and flex the leads frequently. If you use a solid wire, it snaps in two after you flex it several times.
Use solid wire to connect components on breadboards (check out Chapter 11 for more on breadboards) and other places where you dont plan to move the wire around. You can easily insert the solid wire into holes in the board, and
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Chapter 5: Filling Out Your Parts Bin
that wire stays in the shape to which you mold it. If you try to use a stranded wire in a breadboard, you have to twist the strands to get all of them in the hole, and you may break a strand which could short out the circuit.
Size matters
You refer to the size of wire as wire gauge. The wire gauge is simply shorthand for the diameter of the wire. Whats confusing is that the relationship between wire gauge and wire diameter is essentially backwards. A smaller wire gauge means a larger wire diameter.
Manufacturers saddled us with this backwards-naming scheme because of the manufacturing process they use for wires. To make a wire, the metal (usually copper) is pulled through a hole in a steel plate. To make a small diameter wire, the wire is pulled through a series of holes, each hole smaller than the previous one. The wire gauge refers to the number of different size holes the wire was pulled through to make the desired diameter. So the higher the number, the more times someone had to pull the wire and the smaller that wire got in the process. You can see common wire gauges in Table 5-1.
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