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Electronics for dummies - McComb G.

McComb G., Boes E. Electronics for dummies - Wiley publishing, 2005. - 433 p.
ISBN: 0-7645-7660-7
Download (direct link): electronicsfordummies2005.pdf
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Linear, digital, or combination plate?
Over the years, chip makers have come out with thousands upon thousands of different ICs. Each one does something special. Many of the integrated circuits you encounter are standardized, and you can read various books to discover term LinG - live, informative, Non-cost and Genuine !
Chapter 4: Getting to Know You: The Most Common Electronic Components
more about them. A lot of chip makers offer these standardized ICs, and manufacturers and electronics hobbyists the world over buy and use them in various projects. Other ICs, called special-purpose ICs, are designed to accomplish some unique task. More often than not, only a single company sells a particular special-purpose chip.
Whether standardized or special-purpose, you can separate ICs into two main categories: linear and digital. These terms relate to the kinds of electrical signals that work within the circuit:
^ Linear ICs: These ICs are designed to work with any circuit that uses varying voltages and currents (an analog circuit). An example of an analog circuit is a guitar amplifier.
^ Digital ICs: These ICs are designed to work with a circuit that uses just two voltages (a digital circuit). As we note in Chapter 1, these two voltages indicate binary digital data (on/off, high/low, 0/1, that sort of thing). Common voltages that represent digital data are 0 and (often) 5 volts. Refer to Chapter 4 for more detail about digital circuits and binary data.
The majority of standardized ICs fall into either the linear or digital category. Most mail order outfits that sell ICs separate them into linear and digital lists. Some ICs are made to work with both analog (linear) and digital signals, and some can convert between digital and analog signals or work with a host of other combinations. Thereís no sense in trying to corral all of the variations in this book, except to note that you canít neatly classify all chips as either linear or digital.
Figure 4-13:
Among the most popular form-factors for
integrated circuits is the dual in-line pin (DIP) package.
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90 Part II: Aisle 5, Component Shack: Stocking Up
1C part numbers
ICs ó like transistors, ó have a unique number code to identify them. This code, such as 7400 or 4017, indicates the type of device. You can look up specifications and parameters about an IC in a reference book or online. The code is printed on the back of the IC.
Many ICs also contain other information, including manufacturer catalog number and maybe even a code that represents when the chip was made. Donít confuse the date code or catalog number with the code that the catalog uses to identify the device. Manufacturers donít have any standards for how they stamp the date code on their integrated circuits, so you may have to do some detective work to pick out the actual part number of the IC.
Understanding 1C pinouts
By their nature, integrated circuits require multiple connections to a circuit. These connections are called pins. One pin may be for power, another for ground, another for input, yet another for output, and so forth. The function of each pin is referred to as pinout. The pinout isnít printed on the top of the integrated circuit. In order to use the IC in a project you have to look up the pinout in the data sheet for the integrated circuit. You can find these data sheets for most common (and many uncommon) ICs on the Internet. Use a Google or Yahoo! search to help you locate them.
In order to identify what each pin is for, by convention, the pins on an IC are numbered counterclockwise, starting with the upper-left pin closest to the clocking mark. The clocking mark is usually a notch, but it can also be a little dimple, or white or colored stripe. The pins are numbered looking down from the top of the IC, starting from 1. So, for example, the pins of a 14-pin IC are numbered 1 through 7 down the left side and 8 through 14 up the right side, as you can see in Figure 4-14.
Schematic diagrams show the connections to integrated circuits in one of two ways:
Some schematic diagrams show an outline of the IC with numbers beside each pin. The numbers correspond to the clocked pinout of the device. (Remember, start with 1 in the upper left and go counterclockwise.) You can easily wire up an IC with these kinds of diagrams because you donít need to look up the device in a book or data sheet. Just make sure that you follow the schematic and that you count the pins properly.
If the schematic lacks pin numbers, you need to find a copy of the pinout diagram. For standard ICs, you can find these diagrams in reference books and online; for non-standard ICs, you have to visit the manufacturerís Web site to get the data sheet.
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Chapter 4: Getting to Know You: The Most Common Electronic Components
91
CLOCKING MARK
Figure 4-14:
IC pin numbering follows a counterclockwise sequence, starting from the upper left.
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