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Electronics for dummies - McComb G.

McComb G., Boes E. Electronics for dummies - Wiley publishing, 2005. - 433 p.
ISBN: 0-7645-7660-7
Download (direct link): electronicsfordummies2005.pdf
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To build your own mesmerizing lighting effects generator (see the schematic for it in Figure 14-13), you need just two low-priced integrated circuits and a handful of inexpensive parts.
The circuit has two sections:
The brains: An LM555 timer IC makes up the first section, on the left of the schematic. You wire this chip to function as an astable multivibrator (in fact, you make the same basic circuit as the LED flasher that we describe in the section “Creating Cool, Crazy, Blinky Lights” earlier in this chapter). The 555 produces a series of pulses; you determine the speed of the pulses by dialing potentiometer R1.
The body: The second section, on the left of the schematic, contains a 4017 CMOS Decade Counter chip. The 4017 chip switches each of 10 LEDs on, in succession. The LEDs are switched when the 4017 receives a pulse from the 555. You wire the 4017 so that it repeats the 1-to-10 sequence over and over again, for as long as the circuit has power.
Arranging the LEDs
You can build the lighting effects generator on a solderless breadboard just to try it out. If you plan to make it into a permanent circuit, give some thought to the arrangement of the ten LEDs. For example, to achieve different lighting effects, you can try the following:
Put all the LEDs in a row, in sequence: The lights chase each other up (or down) over and over again.
Put all the LEDs in a row, but alternate the sequence left and right:
Wire the LEDs so that the sequence starts from the outside and works its way inside.
Chapter 14: Great Projects You Can Build in 30 Minutes or Less
Refer to the project description for how to use the nails because they aren’t your standard electronics part!
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320 Part V: A Plethora of Projects
Place the LEDs in a circle so that the LEDs sequence clockwise or counterclockwise: This light pattern looks like a roulette wheel.
^ Arrange the LEDs in a heart shape: You can use this arrangement to make a unique Valentine’s Day present.
R1 '
C1 '
Figure 14-13:
Schematic for a lighting effects generator.
17 Î 4 1
16 7
14 4
S 3
LED7 f
LED5 A \/^
LED1 'v/
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Chapter 14: Great Projects You Can Build in 30 Minutes or Less 321
Going to the store for tight chaser parts
To start chasing lights, you need the following parts:
^ IC1: LM555 Timer IC
IC2: 4017 CMOS Decade Counter IC R1: 1 megohm potentiometer R2: 47 Kohm resistor R3: 330ohm resistor
C1: 0.47-|iF disc (non polarized) capacitor C2: 0.1-|iF disc (non polarized) capacitor LED1-10: Light-emitting diode (any color)
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322 Part V: A Plethora of Projects
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Chapter 15
Cool Robot Projects to Amaze Your Friends and Family
In This Chapter
^ Getting into the guts of a robot
Preparing to build your very own ‘bot ^ Constructing Rover, a great beginner robot ^ Giving Rover some smarts
Adding motors, wheels, switches, and batteries for a complete ‘bot Programming the Rover’s BASIC Stamp 2 brain ^ Diving farther into the wide world of robotics
^ake no mistake: Electronics is fun. But after you’ve built your 14th blinky light project, you yearn for more of a challenge. You look for bigger and better projects as you explore new facets of the electronic arts.
Robotics may be just what you’re looking for. A robot is an amalgam of hardware, software, and electronics — all twisted together in a way that appears to bring life to a lump of plastic, metal, and silicon. Not long ago, building a robot meant toiling long hours in the garage and spending hundreds, if not thousands, of dollars.
Thanks to modern electronics, especially the microcontroller that lets you program a robot to perform all sorts of actions, you can build a robot for under $150. You get to decide what your robot does. You can have it seek out new life forms or explore the dark regions of your nephew’s room. Or maybe you have a use in mind that no one has even thought of yet.
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324 Part V: A Plethora of Projects
In this chapter, you build two robots. (Actually, you build one robot, but in two versions.) The first version is a simple ‘bot with no brain. In the second version, you add a microcontroller, which you program to make your robot perform various tasks. With or without a brain, both ‘bots give you the opportunity for a lot of fun.
Robots: The Big Picture
You’re probably familiar with robots in the movies. These things walk, talk, and fend off alien armadas with their laser beam weapons. While there have been great strides in technology over the past several decades, today’s robots aren’t quite this fantastic. A robot that you build in your garage is more likely to be about the size of a cat, with less thinking capacity than a cockroach. This doesn’t mean they aren’t fun, though! On the contrary, playing around with small robots is a rewarding hobby, and they’re getting cooler all the time.
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