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313.81 Oppositional Defiant Disorder
300.02 Generalized Anxiety Disorder
V71.02 Child Antisocial Behavior V61.20 Parent-Child Relational Problem
1. Family members regularly use alcohol or drugs to become intoxicated or high.
2. Absence of a strong parental message for the child to abstain from alcohol and drugs.
3. Lack open and positive communication with the child.
4. Absence of positive, consistent, and effective discipline strategies.
5. Demonstrate a lack of awareness of or concern about the child’s use of mind-altering substances.
6. Verbalize fear and confusion about the child’s use of mind-altering substances and an unawareness of effective intervention strategies.
7. Express feelings of guilt and inadequacy resulting from the child’s addiction to dangerous mind-altering substances.
8. Physical evidence of alcohol or drug usage found on the child’s person or in personal areas at home or school.
9. The child lies or is evasive about plans, activities, friends, and use of illegal substances.
10. The child evidences oppositional behavior problems, mood swings, irritability, emotional distancing, and changes in physical appearance and health.
11. The child is involved in increased risk-taking behavior (e.g., sexual promiscuity, driving while under the influence, stealing, curfew violation, and/or defiance of authority).
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1. Establish a healthy, drug-free lifestyle in all family members.
2. Cooperate with a treatment program designed to help the child and/or other family members achieve and maintain recovery from all mood-altering addictions.
3. Set firm, consistent, and loving discipline limits for the child.
4. Realistically evaluate personal substance use and determine the negative effects on the child.
5. Reduce co-dependency and establish ongoing encouragement for the child’s abstinence from mind-altering substances.
1. Disclose the family’s history of substance abuse and/or special concerns about the child’s use of illegal substances. (1, 2, 3)
2. Schedule time to communi- 4. cate openly with the child
1. Assist the parents in outlining their concerns about substance usage in the family; gather background information about the child’s social/emotional functioning, symptoms of chemical dependency, and behavior problems at home or school.
Ask the parents to disclose their own level of substance use and describe its effects on their daily functioning and relationship with the child.
Collaborate with the parents to enlist the assistance of a drug intervention specialist if necessary.
Stress the importance of maintaining open communication
282 THE PARENTING SKILLS TREATMENT PLANNER
about the negative consequence of substance abuse. (4, 5)
3. Establish a zero tolerance 6
policy for substance abuse.
4. Set reasonable limits for the 8 child which encourage responsible behavior and appropriate independent functioning. (8, 9)
with the child about underage drinking and drug use; help the parents prepare for typical questions that might arise during a discussion (e.g., “How come you drink and I can’t? How is marijuana harmful?”).
Teach the parents effective communication techniques by role playing conversations using I-statements, active listening, not interrupting, and avoiding absolutes like “always” and “never.”
Assign the parents to set a clear family rule of no drug use including tobacco, underage drinking, marijuana, ecstasy, or inhalants and to frequently communicate this standard to the child.
Assign the parents to brainstorm with the child the various ways to maintain a substance-free lifestyle (e.g., learning substance refusal strategies, connecting with a substance-free friendship group, learning about the harmful side effects of substance use, focusing on future goals and aspirations).
Emphasize to the parents the importance of extending freedoms to the child only after responsibility has been demonstrated (or assign the “Earning Privileges and Freedoms” activity from the Parenting Skills Homework Planner by Knapp).
Teach the parents to use enforceable statements (e.g.,
SUBSTANCE ABUSE 283
5. Remain firm and calm and use logical consequences when the child breaks the rules. (10, 11)
6. Monitor outside of school activities and require clear information detailing where, when, and with whom the child is involved. (12, 13)
“Feel free to go to the party as long as Justin’s father assures me that he will be there to chaperone” versus “You’re not going to that party until I know it will be chaperoned”) and limited choices (e.g., “Would you rather do the dishes or drive your brother to soccer?” versus “Do you want to help me or not?”) (See Parenting Teens with Love and Logic by Cline and Fay.)
10. Assign the parents to design several logical consequences to deal with chronic inappropriate behavior (e.g., child comes home intoxicated, child attends alcohol abuse classes and writes a paper about underage drinking).