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Common Errors in Statistics and How to Avoid Them - Good P.I

Good P.I Common Errors in Statistics and How to Avoid Them - Wiley publishing , 2003. - 235 p.
Download (direct link): сommonerrorsinstatistics2003.pdf
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Polar coordinates, 117 Polyline, 114, 118, 119 Polynomial, 132 Population, 3-5, 25, 31-33, 74 Population statistics, 5 Poverty, 134
Power, 16, 28-30, 54, 55, 63, 72, 85
post-hoc, 104
related to sample size, 28, 91 Precision, 46, 95, 97, 137, 139 Prediction, 140, 159-161, 173 Pricing, 103 Proc ARIMA, 138 Proc Means, 53 Proc Mixed, 58 Protocol, 8, 13, 87 Proxy variable, 135 p-value, 10, 54, 71-75, 100-105
Radioimmune assay, 130 Rain, 156
Random number, 7, 98 Randomizing, 33-36, 54, 84 Ranks, 52 Ratio, 47 Raw data, 90 Recruitment, 27, 36 Recruits, 6, 13, 34 Redheads, 12, 15, 34 Redshift, 104 Regression
coefficients, 137-142 linear vs. nonlinear, 131 multivariable, 145, 147 scope, 129 stepwise, 145 Regulatory agency, 15, 35 Rejection region, 16 Relationship, 130 Relativity, 20, 74 Repeated measures, 56 Report, 26
220 SUBJECT INDEX
Resampling, 156 Residuals, 67, 95, 141 Robust, 52, 71, 90 R-squared, 146, 163 Rugplot, 99
Sales, 34 Sample, 6
representative, 4, 7, 9, 78 splitting, 157
size, 28-30, 36, 52, 94, 99,
105
Scale alternative, 55 Scale parameter, 29 Scatterplot, 119, 124 Scope, 129 Seismology, 103 Self-selection, 7 Semiparametric models, 77 Sex, 12, 17, 136 Shading, 123 Shift alternative, 55 Significance
practical, 14, 54, 105 statistical, 136 Significance level, 16, 28-30, 51-54, 60, 63, 71, 100-101 Significance level vs. p-value, 189 Silicon implants, 35 Simpson’s paradox, 136 Simulations, 63, 146, 164, 175 Slope, 132, 134 Smirnov test, 55 Sociology, 100 Software, 29, 137 Stacked bar chart, 118 Standard deviation, 49 Standard error, 95-97, 161 Stationarity, 140 Statistic, 78 Stein’s paradox, 49 Stochastic, 130 Strata, 7, 36, 135-136, 143 Studentize, 47 Subgroups, 13, 33, 71, 87 Sufficient statistic, 49 Surgery, 9
Surrogates, 135, 139, 157 Surveys, 7, 26-28, 32-33, 69, 92 Survival, 17
Tables, 95
Testing hypotheses, 137 Tests
analysis of variance, 62, 65, 67 bootstrap, 52 chi-square, 19 Fisher’s exact, 18 for equality of variance, 60 for equivalence, 75 for independence, 70 F-test, 19, 52, 60, 62 inferior, 71 k-sample, 64 locally most powerful, 56 Mann-Whitney, 64 most powerful, 52 multiple, 72, 102 one- vs. two-tailed, 19 permutation, 14, 19, 21, 51-56, 59-63, 67, 70-71, 77, 89 t-test, 52 Texture, 123 Time series, 57, 103 Title, 122 Toxicology, 32 Transformations, 141 Treatment allocation, 91 t-test, 52-54, 57, 72, 100 Type I and II errors, 21, 27, 29, 52, 72, 85, 189 Type I error, 8, 61 Type II error vs. power, 190
Unbalanced vs balanced design, 65 U-statistic, 52
Vaccine, 15
Validation, 3, 150, 153, 156 Variable
categorical, 111 continuous, 111 confounding, 34, 147+B287 exchangeable, 57 explanatory, 147, 151 indicator, 141 normally-distributed, 67 selection of, 10 Variance, 45, 49, 54, 60-61, 104 estimator, 149 inflation factor, 58
SUBJECT INDEX 221
Variation, 4, 5, 15, 22, 52, 95 Viewpoint, 115, 117 Virus, 30
War, 72
Water, 150
Weak exchangeability, 68, 89 Weather, 15, 134 Wilcoxon test, 55 Withdrawals, 93
222 SUBJECT INDEX
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