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Common Errors in Statistics and How to Avoid Them - Good P.I

Good P.I Common Errors in Statistics and How to Avoid Them - Wiley publishing , 2003. - 235 p.
Download (direct link): ñommonerrorsinstatistics2003.pdf
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Cause and effect, 133, 134, 155, 158 Censored data, 94, 103
SUBJECT INDEX 217
Census, 5, 139 Central limit theorem, 98-99 Chi-square statistic, 100
statistic vs. distribution, 70 test, 19, 67 Clinical significance, 54 Clinical trials, 9, 22, 30, 31, 35, 80,
84, 88, 93, 143 Clinician, 33 Cluster, 6, 56 Cold fUsion, 8 Computers, 20
Confidence interval, 47, 61, 73, 101-102
Confounded effects, 4, 70-71, 87, 102, 129, 133
Contingency table, 16, 70, 89, 100 Contour plot, 115, 117 Controls, 33-35 positive, 35 Correlation, 45, 134 spurious, 140, 146 Corticosteroids, 7 Cost, 27
Cost-benefit analysis, 21 Covariances, 57 Covariates, 59 Criminology, 134 Crossovers, 93 Cross-validation, 173 Curve-fitting, 141 Cutoff value, 63, 100 Cuts, 103
Data collection, 26, 41 Deaths, 94 Decimal places, 96 Decisions, 21-22, 41, 106 Deduction, 19, 73 Delete-one, 139, 159 Density, 113
Deterministic vs. stochastic, 5, 187 Discrimination, 135, 143 Disease process, 15 Dispersion, 95 Distribution, 43, 138, 188 a prior, 84 asymmetric, 137 chi-square, 61
cumulative, 188 empirical, 188 exponential, 86 F, 57
function, 9 heavy-tailed, 43 mixture, 48, 52, 99 multinomial, 67 multiparameter, 48 multivariate normal, 55 nonsymmetric, 43, 48, 60, 63, 67, 96
normal, 29, 96, 99 Poisson, 96 sampling, 60 symmetric, 81-83, 43 uniform, 70, 96, 97 Dropouts, 30, 31 Drugs, 20, 32, 93
Eligibility, 93 Emissions, 22 Endpoints, 102 Epidemiology, 87, 156 Equivalence, 54, 75 Error frequency, 139 Error probabilities, 14 Error terms, 64, 137, 142 Estimate, 4, 148 consistent, 42 efficient, 42 interval vs point, 45 least-squares, 45 mini-max, 44 minimum loss, 44 minimum variance, 44, 137 optimal, 43 plug-in, 45 semiparametric, 42 unbiased, 44, 137 Estimation, 41 Experimental design, 69 unbalanced, 52, 89 Experimental unit, 32 Extrapolate, 9
Factors, 7, 22
False dimension, 108
False negative, see Type I error
False positive, see Type II error
218 SUBJECT INDEX
False third dimension, 109, 110 F-distribution, 60 Fisher’s exact test, 18 Forecast, 102 Found data, 104 F-ratio, 19, 62-65, 100 Fraud, 8, 18, 53, 136
GEE, 56, 59, 148 Geometric mean, 96 GLMM, 58
Goodness of fit, 140, 158 Grammar, 125 Graphics, 94, 107 Grid line, 109, 117, 125 Group, 68
Group randomized trials, 58, 104 Growth, 96
Heterogeneity, 88-89 Hierarchical models, 88 Histogram, 96
Hodges-Lehmann estimator, 43 Hypertension, 12 Hypothesis, 4, 25, 142, 152 alternative, 16-19, 63-64, 85, 188
null, 14, 57, 64, 80, 84, 89, 188 ordered, 19 post-hoc, 7 primary, 16, 63, 86 Hypothesis testing, 15
Immunology, 133, 135 Income, 26 Induce, 74 Induction, 19 Interaction, 65-69 Interquartile range, 47 Interval estimate, 49, 79, 89 Intraclass correlation, 58
Jackknife, 159, 173 Joncjkeere-Terpstra statistic, 64
Kepler’s Law, 5 k-fold resampling, 158 Kinetic molecular theory, 132 Kruskal’s gamma, 100 k-sample analysis, 63, 89
Labels, 123 Lattice, 68 Law, 6, 80, 135 Least-absolute deviation, 43 Least-squares, 43 Legend, 118, 119 Likelihood, 16 Linear vs. nonlinear, 129 Link function, 147-149+B45 Litter, 32
Location parameter, 29 Logical assertion, 12 Logistic regression, 148, 150, 180 Losses
absolute deviation, 20, 41, 44, 64, 86, 96, 137, 141, 142 jump, 42
least square 44, 142 monotone, 42 square deviation, 42 step function, 42
Mail, 32
Main effect, 65, 69 Malmquist bias, 103 Mann-Whitney test, 64 Marginals, 17, 70 Maximum, 46, 98 Maximum likelihood, 41, 45 Maximum tolerable dose, 13 Mean absolute deviation, 160 Mean, arithmetic, 14, 29, 44, 49, 56, 94, 97
Measurements, 26, 27, 42, 103, 105, 130
Median, 30, 43-46, 79, 95-99 Medical device, 35 Medicine, 13, 173-174 Meta-analysis, 87, 90, 103 Minimum, 46, 98, 99 Minimum effective dose, 23 Missing data, 4, 69, 72, 92-93 Mitosis, 34 Model, 133, 146 choosing, 3, 129, 152 nonlinear, 131 range of application, 159 general linear, 147 parametric vs. non-parametric, 188 physical, 142
SUBJECT INDEX 219
Monotone function, 63, 69, 130 MRPP, 138
Multivariate analysis, 142
Negative findings, 106 Neural network, 152 Neurology, 103 Newton’s Law, 20, 74 Neyman-Pearson theory, 15 Nominative label, 112 Nonresponders, 30-31, 72 Normal alternatives, 54 Normal distribution, 67, 71, 145 Normal scores, 53
Objectives, 4, 11 O’Brien’s test, 55 Observational studies, 87 Observations
dependent, 56, 148 exchangeable, 51 identically-distributed, 33 independent, 45
independent, identically distributed, 32, 51, 101 multivariate, 56 transformed, 64 Odds, 85
One-sided vs. two-sided, 16-17 Ordinal data, 114, 187 Outliers, 78, 138 Overfitting, 160
Parameters, 45, 48, 51, 55, 73, 88, 101, 131 location, 29, 43 scale, 29 shift, 44 Paternity, 81 Patterns, 7, 22 Percentiles, 45, 47, 79, 99 Permutation test, 14, 19, 21, 51-56, 59-63, 67, 70-71, 77, 89, 145+B397 Permutations, 69, 138 Perspective plot, 115, 117 Phase III trials, 23 Physician, 34 Pie chart, 117, 118, 125 Pitman correlation, 64
Pivotal quantitty, 49, 57, 78 Placebo, 35
Plotting region, 110, 122 Plotting symbol, 118, 122, 123 Poisson regression, 148 Poisson variable, 147 Poker, 9
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