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Common Errors in Statistics and How to Avoid Them - Good P.I

Common Errors in Statistics and How to Avoid Them

Author: Good P.I
Publishers: Wiley publishing
Year of publication: 2003
Number of pages: 235
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Download: —Āommonerrorsinstatistics2003.pdf

WILEY
Common Errors in Statistics
(and How to Avoid Them)
Phillip I. Good James \V. Hardin
Common Errors in Statistics (and How to Avoid Them)
COMMON ERRORS IN STATISTICS (AND HOW TO AVOID THEM)
Phiiiip I. Good James W. Hardin
mWI LEY- INTERSCIENCE
A JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC., PUBLICATION
Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.
Published simultaneously in Canada.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400, fax 978-750-4470, or on the web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, e-mail: permreq@wiley.com.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:
Good, Phillip I.
Common errors in statistics (and how to avoid them)/Phillip I. Good,
James W. Hardin. p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-471-46068-0 (pbk. : acid-free paper)
1. Statistics. I. Hardin, James W. (James William) II. Title.
QA276.G586 2003 519.5ódc21
2003043279
Printed in the United States of America.
10 987654321
Contents
Preface ix
PART I FOUNDATIONS 1
1. Sources of Error 3
Prescription 4
Fundamental Concepts 4
Ad Hoc, Post Hoc Hypotheses 7
2. Hypotheses: The Why of Your Research 11
Prescription 11
What Is a Hypothesis? 11
Null Hypothesis 14
Neyman-Pearson Theory 15
Deduction and Induction 19
Losses 20
Decisions 21
To Learn More 23
3. Collecting Data 25
Preparation 25
Measuring Devices 26
Determining Sample Size 28
Fundamental Assumptions 32
Experimental Design 33
Four Guidelines 34
To Learn More 37
CONTENTS V
PART II HYPOTHESIS TESTING AND ESTIMATION
39
4. Estimation 41
Prevention 41
Desirable and Not-So-Desirable Estimators 41
Interval Estimates 45
Improved Results 49
Summary 50
To Learn More 50
5. Testing Hypotheses: Choosing a Test Statistic 51
Comparing Means of Two Populations 53
Comparing Variances 60
Comparing the Means of K Samples 62
Higher-Order Experimental Designs 65
Contingency Tables 70
Inferior Tests 71
Multiple Tests 72
Before You Draw Conclusions 72
Summary 74
To Learn More 74
6. Strengths and Limitations of Some Miscellaneous Statistical Procedures 77
Bootstrap 78
Bayesian Methodology 79
Meta-Analysis 87
Permutation Tests 89
To Learn More 90
7. Reporting Your Results 91
Fundamentals 91
Tables 94
Standard Error 95
p Values 100
Confidence Intervals 101
Recognizing and Reporting Biases 102
Reporting Power 104
Drawing Conclusions 104
Summary 105
To Learn More 105
8. Graphics 107
The Soccer Data 107
Five Rules for Avoiding Bad Graphics 108
vi CONTENTS
One Rule for Correct Usage of Three-Dimensional Graphics 115 One Rule for the Misunderstood Pie Chart 117
Three Rules for Effective Display of Subgroup Information 118 Two Rules for Text Elements in Graphics 121
Multidimensional Displays 123
Choosing Effective Display Elements 123
Choosing Graphical Displays 124
Summary 124
To Learn More 125
PART III BUILDING A MODEL 127
9. Univariate Regression 129
Model Selection 129
Estimating Coefficients 137
Further Considerations 138
Summary 142
To Learn More 143
10. Multivariable Regression 145
Generalized Linear Models 146
Reporting Your Results 149
A Conjecture 152
Building a Successful Model 152
To Learn More 153
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