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Digital photography All-in-one desk reference 3rd edition - Busch D.

Busch D. Digital photography All-in-one desk reference 3rd edition - Wiley publishing, 2006. - 755 p.
ISBN: 0-470-03743-1
Download (direct link): digitalphotographyallinone2006.pdf
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Photoshop Elements offers a handful of commands (each with its own dialog box) that allow you to adjust brightness, contrast, tones, hues, and color casts. You can find these tools on the Enhance menu, under the Color and Brightness and Contrast submenus. Figure 4-10 shows the dialog box that appears if you choose Enhanced Adjust ColorO Hue/Saturation. The boxís three sliders are for adjusting Hue (color),
Figure 4-10: Adjust multiple color attributes all in the same dialog box.
Book I
Chapter 4
Editing or Restoring a Photo Electronically
Restoring, Replacing, and Removing Photographic Content
Saturation (amount of color), and Lightness (amount of white in the colors). To use this and similar dialog boxes, simply drag the sliders for whatever levels you are able to adjust (Hue, Saturation, and Lightness in this case) and watch the Preview. When you like what you see, click OK to apply the changes to your image. You can find out more about these specific tools in various chapters in Book VI, which focuses on Photoshop and Photoshop Elements.
Restoring, Replacing, and Removing Photographic Content
When my aunt was a child, she liked to draw on photos, especially those that included pictures of my mom. So we have a lot of old pictures with crayon and pencil strokes on them, and many of those strokes run through peopleís faces and parts of the picture that you couldnít crop away without losing the charm of the image. Other photos in our familyís collection are torn or ripped, bear deep scratches, and generally look tattered. Iíve salvaged many battered photos by using Photoshop and Photoshop Elements to replace the missing content. Various tools in these applications enable you to take content from another spot in the photo and use that content to rebuild whatís missing. For example, in the photo shown in Figure 4-11, rough handling resulted in a tear, and an unfortunate fold cost this photo its corner. Figure 4-12 shows the image after I repaired it.
Figure 4-11: A photo with tears and lost content.
Another problem you might encounter is unwanted content. Perhaps a truck is parked in front of the house youíre trying to sell, and you canít take the picture without including the truck. Never fear ó if you have the right software, you can easily get rid of the truck and replace it with a curb, grass, and
Restoring, Replacing, and Removing Photographic Content
even a few shrubs that may not really exist. You can do the same thing to get rid of people in a picture or to add people (or pets!) to a photo when they werenít there the day the picture was taken. How do you think the tabloids make it look like two people who havenít really even met went to a party together? Is that really Elvis in the background of Lisa Marieís wedding? Itís all a matter of taking existing content, placing it in the image, and leaving unwanted or unimportant content in its wake.
Figure 4-12:1 restored the missing parts by using other content in the image.
Replacing missing or unwanted content
So you want to replace a missing corner, which was lost to a big rip or deep scratch, or you want to cover up something thatís undesirable in the photo. You can use a variety of tools, and most of the more powerful image editing applications let you take content from one spot in the image and repeat it in another spot. To finish the job, you may need tools to make the pasted content blend in, and those tools are normally available even in midrange image editing applications.
The tools you use to replace the missing content or cover up the unwanted content depend on the size of the area being filled. To cover a thin seam (such as a deep scratch) or fix a tiny corner, you can use the Clone Stamp in Photoshop or Photoshop Elements (other higher-end applications have their own versions). If the missing or unwanted content represents a large area of the image, itís better to copy and paste content from one part of the photo to another. I explain both techniques in this section.
Book I
Chapter 4
Figure 4-13 shows a shot of two gargoyles perched on the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris. Unfortunately, a guard-rail protrudes on the image. The Clone Stamp is the best bet for getting rid of that rail.
Editing or Restoring a Photo Electronically
Restoring, Replacing, and Removing Photographic Content
Figure 4-13: Cloning can remove the guard-rai
If you use the Clone Stamp, you can paint other content into the area thatís lacking, filling as much or as little as you want. If you use the copy-and-paste technique, you may have to paste repeatedly to fill in the missing content.
Fixing small areas
To replace content in a small area with the Clone Stamp, follow these steps:
1. Click the Clone Stamp in the tool palette to activate it.
2. Choose an appropriately sized brush.
3. Find the spot that contains the content you want to use to cover something else.
Zoom in if necessary to zero in on the spot.
4. Press and hold the Alt key (or the Option key if youíre on a Mac) and click to sample that spot.
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