# Elementary differential equations 7th edition - Boyce W.E

ISBN 0-471-31999-6

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k1 f1 + k2 f2 + + knfn = 0

(8)

L [y] = y(n) + Pi (t) y(n-1) + ??? + Pn (t)y = g(t).

L[Yi - Y>](t) = L[Yi](t) - L[Y2](t) = g(t) - g(t) = 0.

Hence the difference of any two solutions of the nonhomogeneous equation (2) is a solution of the homogeneous equation (4). Since any solution of the homogeneous

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Chapter 4. Higher Order Linear Equations

PROBLEMS

equation can be expressed as a linear combination of a fundamental set of solutions y1,, yn, it follows that any solution of Eq. (0) can be written as

y = C1 y() + c2y2(i) + + cnyn (t) + Y (t), (9)

where Y is some particular solution of the nonhomogeneous equation (0). The linear combination (9) is called the general solution of the nonhomogeneous equation (0).

Thus the primary problem is to determine a fundamental set of solutions y1,..., yn of the homogeneous equation (4). If the coefficients are constants, this is a fairly simple problem; it is discussed in the next section. If the coefficients are not constants, it is usually necessary to use numerical methods such as those in Chapter 8 or series methods similar to those in Chapter 5. These tend to become more cumbersome as the order of the equation increases.

The method of reduction of order (Section 3.5) also applies to nth order linear equations. If y1 is one solution of Eq. (4), then the substitution y = v(t)y1(t) leads to a linear differential equation of order n 1 for v' (see Problem 06 for the case when n = 3). However, if n > 3, the reduced equation is itself at least of second order, and only rarely will it be significantly simpler than the original equation. Thus, in practice, reduction of order is seldom useful for equations of higher than second order.

In each of Problems 1 through 6 determine intervals in which solutions are sure to exist.

1. /v + 4/" + 3y = t 2. ty"'+ (sin t)y" + 3y = cos t

3. t (t 1)/v + ety + 4 t2 y = 0 4. f' + ty + t2 y+ t3 y = ln t

5. (x 1)/v + (x + 1)y" + (tan x) y = 0 6. (x2 4)yvi + x2 /" + 9y = 0

In each of Problems 7 through 10 determine whether the given set of functions is linearly dependent or linearly independent. If they are linearly dependent, find a linear relation among them.

7. f1(t) = 2t 3, f2(t) = t2 + 1, f3(t) = 2t2 t

8. yt) = 2t 3, f2(t) = 2t2 + 1, f3(t) = 3t2 + t

9. f1(t) = 2t 3, f2(t) = t2 + 1, f3(t) = 2t2 t, f4 (t) = t2 + t + 1

10. f1(t) = 2t 3, f2(t) = t3 + 1, f3(t) = 2t2 t, f4 (t) = t2 + t + 1

In each of Problems 11 through 16 verify that the given functions are solutions of the differential equation, and determine their Wronskian.

11. + y = 0; 1, cos t, sin t

10. /v + y = 0; 1, t, cos t, sin t

13. y" + 0y y 0y = 0; et, et, e-2t

14. /v + 0y" + y = 0; 1, t, et, tet

15. xy" y = 0; 1, x, x3

16. x3y + x0y 0xy + 0y = 0; x, x2, 1 /x

17. Show that W(5, sin0 t, cos0t) = 0 for all t. Can you establish this result without direct evaluation of the Wronskian?

18. Verify that the differential operator defined by

L [y] = y(n) + P1 (t)y(n1) + + pn (t)y

is a linear differential operator. That is, show that

L [c1 y + c0 y0] = C1L [y1] + c0 L [y0h

4.1 General Theory of nth Order Linear Equations

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where y1 and y2 are n times differentiable functions and y and c2 are arbitrary constants. Hence, show that if y1, y2,..., yn are solutions of L[y] = 0, then the linear combination Cj y1 + + cnyn is also a solution of L [y] = 0.

19. Let the linear differential operator L be defined by

where a0, a1, a are real constants.

(a) Find L[t"].

(b) Find L[(?%

(c) Determine four solutions of the equation yv 5y" + 4y = 0. Do you think the four solutions form a fundamental set of solutions? Why?

20. In this problem we show how to generalize Theorem 3.3.2 (Abels theorem) to higher order equations. We first outline the procedure for the third order equation

Hint: The derivative of a 3-by-3 determinant is the sum of three 3-by-3 determinants obtained by differentiating the first, second, and third rows, respectively.

(b) Substitute for yj", y, and y3" from the differential equation; multiply the first row by p3, the second row by p2, and add these to the last row to obtain

for this case.

In each of Problems 21 through 24 use Abels formula (Problem 20) to find the Wronskian of a fundamental set of solutions of the given differential equation.

25. The purpose of this problem is to show that if W(y1, ..., yn)(t0) = 0 for some t0 in an interval I, then y:,..., yn are linearly independent on I, and if they are linearly independent and solutions of

L [y] = ao/n) + ai y(n-1) + ??? +any,

/" + P1 (t) y + P2 (t)y1 + P3 (t)y = 0.

Let y1, y2, and y3 be solutions of this equation on an interval I.

(a) If W = W(y, y2, y3), show that

y y2 ys

W = y1 /2 y3

yi y y

W' = -p1(t)W.

(c) Show that

It follows that W is either always zero or nowhere zero on I.

(d) Generalize this argument to the nth order equation

y(n) + Pi(t ) y(n-1) + ??? + pn (t ) y = 0 with solutions y1,..., yn. That is, establish Abels formula,

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