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# Elementary differential equations 7th edition - Boyce W.E

Boyce W.E Elementary differential equations 7th edition - Wiley publishing , 2001. - 1310 p.
ISBN 0-471-31999-6
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2The boundary dU of an open set U C K2 is a point x e R2 which is not in U, but such that there exists a sequence of points x e U which converges to x. Later we will encounter the notion of accessible boundary, the points x e dU such that there exists a parametrized curve y : (0, 1] ^ U such that lim^o Y(t) = x. For simple open sets, the boundary and the accessible boundary coincide, but not for our basins.
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The next step is to show that the accessible boundary of the basin is made up of the stable separatrices of these saddles. This uses the technique of basin cells, as pioneered by Kennedy, Nusse, and Yorke3. To see a fleshed-out sketch, see the C-ODE-E article referenced at the end of this chapter.
? Gaining Control
The statement about the basins having the Wada property is, in some sense, a negative statement, saying that there is maximum possible disorder. Is there some positive statement one can make about the forced pendulum (for these parameter values)? It turns out that there is. The precise statement is as follows.
During one period of the forcing term, say during
tin the interval Ik = [2kn, 2(k + 1)n] the pendulum will do one of the following four things:
It will cross the bottom position exactly once moving clockwise (count this possibility as — 1);
It will cross the bottom position exactly once moving counterclockwise (count this possibility as +1);
• It will not cross the bottom position at all (count this possibility as 0);
• It will do something else (possibility NA).
Note that most solutions appear to be attracted to sinks, and that the stable oscillation corresponding to a sink crosses the bottom position twice during each Ik, and hence these oscillations (and most oscillations after they have settled down) belong to the NA category.
The essential control statement we can make about the pendulum is the following:
For any biinfinite sequence ..., e-i, eo,ei,... of symbols ek selected from the set {-1, 0, 1}, there exist values x(0), X(0) such that the solution with this initial condition will do ek during the time interval Ik.
The chaos game in Module 12 suggests why this might be true; the techniques involved in the proof were originally developed by Smale4.
3Judy Kennedy, Helena Nusse, and James Yorke are mathematicians at the Universities of Delaware, Utrecht, and Maryland, respectively.
4Stephen Smale is a contemporary mathematician who was awarded a Fields medal (the mathematical equivalent of a Nobel prize) in the early 1960 s. See Devaney in the references at the end of this chapter.
Gaining Control
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Figure 12.5: Start in quadrilateral Q0 and reach forward into Q1 and backward into Q—1.
We start by drawing quadrilaterals Qk around the kth saddle, long in the unstable direction and short in the stable direction, such that they cross a good part of the tangle. We can now translate our symbols ei, which refer to the differential equation, into the Poincare mapping language.
If at time t = 2kn the pendulum is in Qk and at time 2(k + 1)n it is in Qk+Sk, then during Ik the pendulum does ek. So it is the same thing to require that a trajectory of the pendulum realize a particular symbol sequence, and to require that an orbit of the Poincare map visit a particular sequence of quadrangles, just so long as successive quadrangles be neighbors or identical.
Draw the forward image of that quadrilateral, and observe that it grows much longer in the unstable direction and shrinks in the stable direction; we will refer to P( Qk) as the kth snake, Sk. The entire proof comes down to understanding how Sk intersects Qk— 1, Qk, and Qk+1.
The thing to be checked is that Sk intersects all three quadrilaterals in elongated regions going from top to bottom, and that the top and bottom of Qk map to parts of the boundary of Sk which are outside Qk— 1 U Qk U Qk+1. See Figure 12.5 for an example of a winning strategy for three adjacent quadrilaterals.
Once you have convinced yourself that this is true, you will see that every symbolic sequence describing a history of the pendulum is realized by an intersection of thinner and thinner nested subquadrangles.
A similar argument shows that a symbolic sequence describing a future of the pendulum corresponds to a sequence of thinner and thinner subquadrangles going from left to right. The details are in the C-ODE-E paper by
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J.H. Hubbard in the references.
We have shown how to gain control of the motions of the driven pendulum. In particular, if we want the pendulum “robot” to execute a prescribed set of rotations, all we have to do is put it in the right initial state and switch on the driving force. Although everything has been phrased in terms of a pendulum, the approach extends to almost any kind of chaotic motion. Engineers, scientists, and mathematicians are now designing prototypes of chaotic control systems based on these ideas. One of the most intriguing applications uses a chaotic sequence to encode a digital message. The sequence is “added” to the message, and the intended recipient then subtracts the chaos to read the message. Chaos is often an undesirable aspect of physical motions. Devices have recently been built that force a chaotic system to stay focused on a desired response. All of this is new, so we can’t say just how the applications will evolve. See the books by Kapitaniak, Nayfeh, and Ott for more on chaotic controls and controlling chaos.
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