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66 M. R. Barrick and M. K. Mount, “The Big Five Personality Dimensions
and Job Performance: A Meta Analysis,” Personnel Psychology, Vol. 44 (1991), pp. 1-26, and “Autonomy as a Moderator of the Relationships Between the Big Five Personality Dimensions and Job Performance,” Journal of Applied Psychology (February 1993), pp. 111-118.
67 See Jim C. Nunnally, Psychometric Theory, 2nd ed. (New York: McGraw
Hill, 1978), Ch. 14.
68 See David A. Whetten and Kim S. Cameron, Developing Management
Skills, 3rd ed. (New York: Harper Collins, 1995), p. 72.
69 Raymond G. Hunt, Frank J. Krzystofiak, James R. Meindl, and Abdalla M.
Yousry, “Cognitive Style and Decision Making,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol. 44, No. 3 (1989), pp. 436-453. For additional work on problem-solving styles, see Ferdinand A. Gul, “The Joint and Moderating Role of Personality and Cognitive Style on Decison Making,” Accounting Review (April 1984), pp. 264-277; Brian H. Kleiner, “The Interrelationship of Jungian Modes of Mental Functioning with Organizational Factors: Implications for Management Development,” Human Relations (November 1983), pp. 997-1012; James L. McKenney and Peter G. W. Keen, “How Managers’ Minds Work,” Harvard Business Review (May/June 1974), pp. 79-90.
70 Some examples of firms using the Myers-Briggs Indicators are J. M. Ku-
nimerow and L. W. McAllister, “Team Building with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: Case Studies,” Journal of Psychological Type, Vol. 15 (1988), pp. 26-32; G. H. Rice, Jr. and D. P. Lindecamp, “Personality Types and Business Success of Small Retailers,” Journal of Occupational Psychology, Vol. 62 (1989), pp. 177-182; and B. Roach, Strategy Styles and Management Types: A Resource Book for Organizational Management Consultants (Stanford, CA: Balestrand Press, 1989).
71 J. B. Rotter, “Generalized Expectancies for Internal versus External Control
of Reinforcement,” Psychological Monographs, Vol. 80 (1966), pp. 1-28.
72 Don Hellriegel, John W. Slocum, Jr., and Richard W. Woodman, Organi-
zational Behavior, 5th ed. (St. Paul, MN: West, 1989), p. 46.
73 See John A. Wagner III and John R. Hollenbeck, Management of Orga-
nizational Behavior (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1992), Ch. 4.
74 Niccolo Machiavelli, The Prince, trans. George Bull (Middlesex, UK: Pen-
75 Richard Christie and Florence L. Geis, Studies in Machiavellianism (New
York: Academic Press, 1970).
Section One ? 69
76 See M. Synder, Public Appearances/Private Realities: The Psychology of
Self-Monitoring (New York: W. H. Freeman, 1987).
78 Adapted from R. W. Bortner, “A Short Scale: A Potential Measure of Pat-
tern A Behavior,” Journal of Chronic Diseases Vol. 22 (1969). Used by permission.
79 See Meyer Friedman and Ray Roseman, Type A Behavior and Your Heart
(New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1974). For another view, see Walter Kiechel III, “Attack of the Obsessive Managers,” Fortune (February 16,
1987), pp. 127-128.
80 Viktor Gecas, “The Self-Concept,” in Ralph H. Turner and James F. Short,
Jr. (eds.), Vol. 8, Annual Review of Sociology (Palo Alto, CA: Annual Review, 1982), p. 3. Also see Arthur P. Brief and Ramon J. Aldag, “The ‘Self in Work Organizations: A Conceptual Review,” Academy of Management Review (January 1981), pp. 75-88; and Jerry J. Sullivan, “Self Theories and Employee Motivation,” Journal of Management (June 1989), pp. 345-363.
81 Compare Philip Cushman, “Why the Self Is Empty,” American Psycholo-
gist (May 1990), pp. 599-611.
82 Based in part on a definition in Gecas, p. 3.
83 Suggested by J. Brockner, Self-Esteem at Work (Lexington, MA: Lexington
Books, 1988) p. 144; and Wagner and Hollenbeck, pp. 100-101.
84 See P. E. Jacob, J. J. Flink, and H. L. Schuchman, “Values and Their
Function in Decisionmaking,” American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 5, Suppl. 9 (1962), pp. 6-38.
85 See M. Rokeach and S. J. Ball Rokeach, “Stability and Change in Ameri-
can Value Priorities, 1968-1981,” American Psychologist (May 1989), pp. 775-784.
86 Milton Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: Free Press,
87 See W. C. Frederick and J. Weber, “The Values of Corporate Managers
and Their Critics: An Empirical Description and Normative Implications,” in W. C. Frederick and L. E. Preston (eds.), Business Ethics: Research Issues and Empirical Studies (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1990), pp. 123-144.
88 Gordon Allport, Philip E. Vernon, and Gardner Lindzey, Study of Values
(Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1931).
89 Adapted from R. Tagiuri, “Purchasing Executive: General Manager or
Specialist?” Journal of Purchasing (August 1967), pp. 16-21.
90 Bruce M. Maglino, Elizabeth C. Ravlin, and Cheryl L. Adkins, “Value
Congruence and Satisfaction with a Leader: An Examination of the Role of Interaction,” unpublished manuscript (Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, 1990), pp. 8-9.
91 Maglino, Ravlin, and Adkins.
92 Daniel Yankelovich, New Rules! Searching for Self-Fulfillment in a World