Download (direct link):
vard University Press, 1938).
11 See Steven N. Brenner and Earl A. Mollander, “Is the Ethics of Business
Changing?” Harvard Business Review 55 (February 1977): 57-71; Barry Z. Posner and Warren H. Schmidt, “Values and the American Manager: An Update,” California Management Review 26 (Spring 1984):
12 Although the work on organizational politics is not extensive, useful re-
views include a chapter in Robert H. Miles, Macro Organizational Behavior (Santa Monica, CA: Goodyear, 1980); Bronston T. Mayes and Robert W. Allen, “Toward a Definition of Organizational Politics,” Academy of Management Review 2 (1977): 672-677; Gerald F. Ca-vanagh, Dennis J. Moberg, and Manuel Velasquez, “The Ethics of Organizational Politics,” Academy of Management Review 6 (July 1981): 363-374; Dan Farrell and James C. Petersen, “Patterns of Political Behavior in Organizations,” Academy of Management Review 7 (July 1982): 403-412; D. L. Madison, R. W. Allen, L. W. Porter, and B. T. Mayes, “Organizational Politics: An Exploration of Managers’ Perceptions,” Human Relations 33 (1980): 92-107.
13 Mayes and Allen, “Toward a Definition of Organizational Politics,” p.
14 Jeffrey Pfeffer, Power in Organizations (Marshfield, MA: Pitman, 1981), p.
15 Michael Sconcolfi, Anita Raghavan, and Mitchell Pacelle, “All Bets Are
Off: How the Salesmanship and Brainpower Failed at Long Term Capital,” Wall Street Journal (November 16, 1998), p. 1, 18-19.
16 B. E. Ashforth and R. T. Lee, “Defensive Behavior in Organizations: A
Preliminary Model,” Human Relations (July 1990): 621-648; personal communication with Blake Ashforth, December 1998.
17 See Pfeffer (1981); M. M. Harmon and R. T. Mayer, Organization Theory
for Public Administration (Boston: Little, Brown, 1986); W. Richard Scott, Organizations: Rational, Natural and Open Systems (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1987).
18 Developed from James L. Hall and Joel L. Leldecker, “A Review of Verti-
cal and Lateral Relations: A New Perspective for Managers,” in Patrick
Connor (ed.), Dimensions in Modern Management, 3rd ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982), pp. 138-146, which was based in part on Leonard Sayles, Managerial Behavior (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964).
19 See Jeffrey Pfeffer, Organizations and Organization Theory (Boston: Pit-
man, 1983); Jeffrey Pfeffer and Gerald R. Salancik, The External Control of Organizations (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1978).
20 R. N. Osborn, “A Comparison of CEO Pay in Western Europe, Japan and
the U.S.,” working paper (Detroit: Department of Management, Wayne State University, 1998).
21 See the early work of James D. Thompson, Organizations in Action
(New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967) and more recent studies by R. N. Osborn and D. H. Jackson, “Leaders, Riverboat Gamblers, or Purposeful Unintended Consequences in Management of Complex Technologies,” Academy of Management Journal 31 (1988): 924-947; M. Hector, “When Actors Comply: Monitoring Costs and the Production of Social Order,” Acta Sociologica 27 (1984): 161-183; T. Mitchell and W. G. Scott, “Leadership Failures, the Distrusting Public and Prospects for the Administrative State,” Public Administration Review 47 (1987):
22 J. J. Jones, The Downsizing of American Potential (New York: Raymond
23 This discussion is based on Cavanagh, Moberg, and Velasquez (1981);
and Manuel Velasquez, Dennis J. Moberg, and Gerald Cavanagh, “Organizational Statesmanship and Dirty Politics: Ethical Guidelines for the Organizational Politician,” Organizational Dynamics 11 (1983): 65-79, both of which offer a fine treatment of the ethics of power and politics.
24 Lucent Technologies, 1998 Annual Report.
25 Steve Axley, author of Communication at Work: Management and the
Communication-Intensive Organization (Westport, CT: Quorum Books, 1996), points out that the ultimate meaning in any communication is created by the receiver or perceiver of the message.
26 Developed from J. Stephen Morris, “How to Make Criticism Sessions
Productive,” Wall Street Journal (October 12, 1981), p. 24.
27 See Axelrod (1996).
28 See Richard L. Birdwhistell, Kinesics and Context (Philadelphia: Univer-
sity of Pennsylvania Press, 1970).
29 Edward T. Hall, The Hidden Dimension (Garden City, NY: Doubleday,
30 See D. E. Campbell, “Interior Office Design and Visitor Response,” Jour-
nal of Applied Psychology 64 (1979): 648-653; P. C. Morrow and J. C. McElroy, “Interior Office Design and Visitor Response: A Constructive Replication,” Journal of Applied Psychology 66 (1981): 646-650.
31 M. P. Rowe and M. Baker, “Are You Hearing Enough Employee Con-
cerns?” Harvard Business Review 62 (May/June 1984): 127-135.
32 This discussion is based on Carl R. Rogers and Richard E. Farson, “Ac-
tive Listening” (Chicago: Relations Center of the University of Chicago).
33 Modified from an example in ibid.
34 Richard V. Farace, Peter R. Monge, and Hamish M. Russell, Communicat-
ing and Organizing (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1977), pp. 97-98.