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Fraud Exprosed Whot you Dont Could Cost your company millions - Joseph W.

Joseph W. Fraud Exprosed Whot you Dont Could Cost your company millions - Wiley Publishing, 2003. - 289 p.
ISBN: 0-471-27475-5
Download (direct link): fraudexposedwhatyoudont2003.pdf
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Whalen advises that the U.S. Supreme Court reversed the Ninth Circuit, noting:
The U.S. Supreme Court reversed the Ninth Circuit’s decision, relying on the Supreme Court’s past decisions that a finding of reasonable suspicion is based on the totality of the circumstances. These factors must be reviewed as a whole and are not subject to individual scrutiny. While the concept may be abstract, it “allows officers to draw on their own experience and specialized training to make inferences from and deductions about the cumulative information available to them that might elude the untrained person.” The fact that an observation may have an innocent explanation does not preclude the behavior from consideration when determining reasonable suspicion.15
Thus have the federal courts held in a series of cases that individual pieces of information in the hands of a trained and experienced person, such as a law enforcement officer, can be sufficient to justify a law enforcement action such as a vehicle stop. While the position of the forensic professional is different in many ways from that of the law enforcement officer, such positions do support the fact that profiling in the hands of a competent, trained, reasonable, and thoughtful person may have considerable utility when addressing issues of fraud in the workplace.
Of late, the technology most states now use on drivers’ licenses and the availability of fairly cheap scanners have combined to take this voluntary behavior to a new level. Jennifer Lee, writing in The New York Times16, provides one example in noting the policy of a popular Boston bar to use scanners to check driver’s licenses of patrons. Ostensibly done to :prevent underage drinking and to spot known troublemakers, the device also encodes useful data as to age, address, and date of visit. Such data is valuable in planning entertainment offerings, product promotions, and advertising campaigns.17 All of this useful data comes under the canopy of profiling.
WHAT'S NEW?
Many other companies and services also track our movements for the purposes of collecting business intelligence. Edward Ip, an Assistant Professor of Statistics, Information and Operations Management, notes that AT&T collects data on the 130 million calls it handles each day and that Amazon.com monitors “click stream data” from the 29 million customers who use its services. Such data are used to produce decision and product mix models to improve customer satisfaction, promote customer loyalty, and increase profits.18
Authors Taylor and Jerome note that we can also be profiled in areas extremely important to retailers—our buying and browsing decisions. They note, for example, that Microsoft’s Windows Media Player creates a record of the DVDs you watch and the music you play. This information is then automatically relayed back to a corporate headquarters’ database in Redmond, Washington. They also advise that Comcast used to track its customers’ surfing habits, but dropped this policy after a Congressperson and privacy rights groups voiced complaints. Amazon.com goes about the same goal in a slightly different manner, they observe. This e-tailer asks customers to complete questionnaires rating various products according to their tastes. These data are then compared to peer group ratings, and from this data future product selections are recommended for purchase. In fairness, Taylor and Jerome note that most customers are happy to have Amazon provide this service, with the company acting as sort of a personal shopper on their behalf.19
Other companies, they note, are willing to trade with customers who are willing to provide them with important marketing information. They cite Proctor & Gamble, which sponsored a print and media campaign to promote a new product, Crest Whitestrips tooth-bleaching kit. The ads encouraged consumers to go to the company’s Web site, where they could get coupons and discounts. As a result of this traffic, Proctor & Gamble learned that 80 percent of this product was purchased by women, and that half were between 35 and 54 years of age. Armed with this important information, the company adjusted its advertising campaign accordingly.20
Even The New York Times, which is not normally reticent in decrying perceived threats to civil liberties, recently endorsed increased funding to permit law enforcement agencies to use perhaps the ultimate form of profiling—DNA analysis. Noting that state and federal databanks held substantial numbers of DNA profiles of criminals and suspects, The Times argued that more widespread and timely use of such data, now hindered by budget constraints, would help capture sexual assailants and also free those wrongly accused or imprisoned.21
Wells, and the 1996 and 2002 Reports to the Nation on the size and characteristics of occupational fraud offer us a type of a profile of those who commit occupational frauds—a college-educated white male with no prior criminal record for fraud. That description fits a huge number of people, but it is a sort of a profile. We still, however, must deal with the sticky issue of predictive value. While profiling techniques may be useful in the solution of a crime (or a fraud),
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