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Fraud Exprosed Whot you Dont Could Cost your company millions - Joseph W.

Joseph W. Fraud Exprosed Whot you Dont Could Cost your company millions - Wiley Publishing, 2003. - 289 p.
ISBN: 0-471-27475-5
Download (direct link): fraudexposedwhatyoudont2003.pdf
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As you look at that, at the same time you see very highly motivated police people at the top and at the bottom of our organizations trying to cope with that, saying we’ve got to do something to enable us to deal with this problem. Out of that are coming a wide range of different departments doing different things in order to respond to that, and I find all of those innovations very exciting. I think it’s important for us to focus on the specific innovations more so than it is to worry about the way in which they’re labeled, because in my view the elements of the various programs, the various innovations and the need for them is going to remain, and they’re going to be met regardless of what the current flavor of the month... happens to be.14
There are, obviously, areas of overlap between problem-oriented policing and community policing and even some in the field use the terms interchangeably. Goldstein recognizes this, and notes: “There’s a big difference, but I think the difference is primarily in emphasis. We need more engagement in community; we also have a critical need for thinking differently about what the police are expected to do and investing heavily in the systematic analysis of the various pieces of police business.”15
As police thinking and theoretical development continued, one of the next major concepts came from an unlikely source. The March 1982 edition of
FRAUD EXPOSED
Atlantic Monthly carried an article entitled, “The Police and Neighborhood Safety: Broken Windows,” by James 0. Wilson and George Kelling. In the words of one present-day police chief, a lieutenant at the time the article came out, it “knocked his socks off.”16 Marie Simonetti Rosen, the editor of Law Enforcement News who conducted an interview of Kelling 17 years later, noted the article “would provide the theoretical and practical underpinning for much of the crime decreases that have been occurring nationwide for the past several years. Moreover, the term ‘broken windows’ has become a metaphor, a law enforcement catch phrase, for increased police attention to quality-of-life crime and rescuing neighborhoods and public spaces from decay.”17 Authors Lardner and Repetto have attempted to put “broken windows” theory into a somewhat broader context, noting it “dovetailed with ideas articulated two decades earlier by urbanologist Jane Jacobs. In her book, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Jacobs portrayed the police as subsidiary partners in the enterprise of crime control; the first line of defense, according to Jacobs, was a critical mass of confident and engaged citizens actively monitoring the scene.”18 It is, however, a highly useful concept that must be applied carefully, for many policies can sprout from its roots. Rosen addresses this point in her interview with Kelling, observing he “finds it interesting to have a long ‘relationship with a metaphor that I helped to create’.” He goes on to observe that the strength of the metaphor is that it:
“helps people to wrap their minds around a fairly complex issue.” The disadvantage is once the metaphor “gets a life of its own, it begins to block thinking.”
In addition, as has happened with the “broken windows” concept, a metaphor can breed “bastard children” like zero-tolerance campaigns, crackdowns and sweeps, terms that Kelling declares are “anathema” to his philosophy of policing. His is a philosophy that is based on a community policing model in which police and residents know and work with each other to solve neighborhood problems, policing activities are decentralized, and officers are given the proper legal tools and guidance in the wise use of police discretion—discretion that does not use race as a factor.”19
So concerned was Kelling with a drifting away from his original ideas, that in 1998 he and his researcher-wife, Catherine Coles, wrote a book, Fixing Broken Windows, on issues of application of the concept he and Wilson originally devel-oped.20 Rosen further notes:
To be sure, “broken windows” has not been without its critics, and of late that criticism has focused on the argument that order-maintenance campaigns are a veil for police harassment of minority groups. With such criticism having swelled in the aftermath of the police shooting of Amadou Diallo in New York, Kelling views such critics as opportunistic and politically motivated, eager to
RETHINKING THE ASSUMPTIONS
attack Mayor Rudolph Giuliani despite his administration’s dramatic success in reducing the city’s crime rate using the “broken windows” approach. As important, Kelling believes that some of the criticism currently being leveled at “broken windows” stems from those who still cling to the belief that crime stems from “root causes” that police can do little to effect. In the 1960s, according to Kelling, many police scholars and police executives bought into the idea that “crime is caused by poverty, racism and social injustice [and] if you wanted to deal with crime, you have to deal with root causes.” Since police could do nothing about root causes, the argument went, they could do nothing about crime. This way of thinking, Kelling says, helped turn police into “case processors” who responded to crime but could not prevent it.21
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