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14. See note 4, 33.
15. Malcolm W. Klein, The American Street Gang: Its Nature, Prevalence, and Control (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), 90-91.
16. Id., 34.
17. Id., 114.
18. Id., 120.
19. Id., 199.
20. See note 8, 40.
21. Id., 39-46.
22. U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Prisons, National Institute of Corrections, www.fbi.gov. Accessed on January 12. 2002.
23. Morgan Reynolds, “0: Will Building More U.S. Prisons Take a Bite out of Crime?,” Insight (June 7, 1999), available online at www.findarticles.com.
24. “Private Prisons Benefit Local Economies,” PR Newswire, (October 25, 2001), available online at www.findarticles.com.
25. Nicholas Kulish and Joseph T. Hallinan, “States’ Tight Budgets Compel Easing of Prison-Sentence Policies,” The Wall Street Journal (February 7, 2002), B-7.
26. Janine Latus Musick, “Keeping Would Be Thieves at Bay,” Nation’s Business (October
1998), available online at www.fmdarticles.com.
27. William Bratton, with Peter Knobler, Turnaround: How America's Top Cop Reversed the Crime Epidemic (New York: Random House, 1998), 8.
28. Id., 98.
29. Id., 93.
30. Id., 213.
31. Id., 94.
32. Peter K. Manning, Police Work: The Social Organization of Policing (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1979), 103.
33. Id., 111-116.
34. Id., 117.
35. Id., 127.
36. Id., 129-132.
37. See note 29, 142-143.
38. Id., 151.
39. Id., 209.
40. Id., 215-216.
42. Graham T. Allison, Essence of Decision (New York: Little Brown & Co., 1971).
43. Albert A. Seedman and Peter Hellman, Chief (New York: Arthur Fields Books Inc., 1974), 434-435.
44. Irwin Garfinkel, “Foreword,” in Murray Edelman, Political Language: Words That Succeed and Policies That Fail (New York: Academic Press, 1977), xiii.
45. Michael Lipsky, “Introduction,” in Murray Edelman, Political Language: Words That Succeed and Policies That Fail (New York: Academic Press, 1977), xiii.
46. Id., 3.
47. Id., 4.
48. Id., 43-44.
49. See note 29,242.
50. Edwin J. Delattre, Character and Cops: Ethics in Policing (Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1989), 211-212.
51. The public still, however, puts a heavy emphasis on crime and issues related to it. In a Gallup poll conducted between August 29 and September 5, 2000, 60 percent of respondents rated crime as an extremely or very serious issue. Poll Topics & Trends—Crime, The Gallup Organization, www.gallup.org. Accessed January 12, 2002.
52. See note 6, 107.
53. Fox Butterfield, “Study Finds Steady Increase at All Levels of Government in Cost of Criminal Justice,” The New York Times (February 11. 2002), A-14.
54. In 2001, Forbes magazine conducted a special survey to attempt to determine how the changing demographic and social makeup of the United States would affect the nation’s business. It consisted of “original research from 4,000 interviews on the attitudes, behaviors, and perspectives on life in the U.S.” The research commenced in August 2001 (p. 3). On the issue of crime and policing, four groups (White, Non-Hispanic; Hispanic; African American; and Asian) were asked “How Much Do You Trust” various institutions: the police, the legal system, the current government, news on TV, and the daily newspaper. The police were trusted most by White/Non-Hispanic; were trusted second most, by one percentage point under the legal system, by Hispanics; were tied with the legal system as most trusted by African Americans; and were trusted third-most by Asians, following news on TV, and the legal system (p. 31). “Portrait Of The New America: A Multicultural Marketplace,” special supplement to Forbes, (January 21, 2002). Generally speaking, from these figures is does not appear that trust in the police is a primary problem in effecting crime control. The somewhat good showing the police made versus other institutions may be a result of their current crime control efforts.
1. As of the publication date of their review of crime in the United States, U.S. News & World Report listed improving the police, improving the courts, and improving corrections. Community involvement is mentioned in regard to these initiatives, but in no focused or systematic fashion. Crime in America: Causes and Cures (Books by U.S. News & World Report, 1972), 172-179
2. Clark, Crime in America, 133-137.
3. All references to Goldstein and his work are from “Professor Herman Goldstein, the ‘father’ of problem-oriented policing,” interview by Marie Simonetti Rosen, Law Enforcement News 23, no. 461, (February 14, 1997), 8-11. Reprinted with permission of Law Enforcement News (John Jay College of Criminal Justice, New York: 1997).
4. It is often the reaction of the general public that police discretion is an oxymoron since cops, by definition, enforce the law, and the law is what it is. Any deviation from this strict standard is often assumed to be the result of police corruption or favoritism. To most police officers and knowledgeable observers of the police function, this view is simply incorrect. There are, of course, elements of corruption and favoritism in law enforcement, just as there are in any profession or calling, but confusing discretion with corruption is a serious mistake most of the time. The interesting thing is we all know this instinctively, since almost none of us drives at 55 (or 65) on any U.S. interstate highway so marked. We understand police tolerance for some degree of speeding and adjust our behavior accordingly in a sort of informal and undocumented pact with the officers who patrol those roads.