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I believe it is appropriate for a forensic practitioner writing for an audience of other forensic practitioners to first and foremost, be honest. The opening line of this work said it would be long on questions and short on answers. I did not lie to you. Throughout this work I have questioned some of what organizational
America and the forensic profession does. I have spent, with considerable pride, my entire adult life in large organizations, most of it in one form or another of forensic investigations. To some, I may appear disloyal. If that is the case, so be it, but it is not my intent. I am aware of the old story, recounted by author Chris Offut, of the axe being carried into the woods. When the trees saw it, they gazed at it and said, “Look, the handle is one of us.” I have tried to be the loyal watchman, shouting “Fire!” because I believe we can do better. I hear the river running. The next tidal wave will happen someday—it always does. But we are foolish, as it recedes and we survey the damage, if we do not listen for the river.
1. Michael S. Sitrick, with Allan Mayer, Spin (Washington, DC:Regnery Publishing, 1998), 123-124.
2. Ward made these comments at a Northeast Regional Breakfast Meeting of the FBI National Academy Associates in New York City in the late 1980s. The author was present.
3. Erroll J. Yates, “Internal Audit: A Managerial Control,” Internal Auditor (1977), reprinted and recounted in Jeffrey Ridley, “Worth Repeating,” Internal Auditor (December 2001), 37-39.
4. The Association of Certified Fraud Examiners, 2002 Report to the Nation: Occupational Fraud and Abuse (Austin, TX: 2002), 17.
5. When Frank Gruttadauria, a fugitive stockbroker suspected of absconding with as much as $125 million of client money over a 15-year period, turned himself in to the FBI in Cleveland, Ohio, on February 9, 2002 he is reported to have said: “I was surprised I got away with it for so long” (CBS Evening News, February 10, 2002). Likewise, when convicted spy Robert Hanssen, a career FBI agent assigned to highly sensitive counterintelligence investigations, was arrested in Northern Virginia on February 18, 2001 for selling secrets to the Russians over a period of many years, he is reported to have said: “What took you so long?” We normally do not think of espionage as a form of fraud, but it is. Issues of classifications and national security damage aside, it is merely the selling of trade secrets or intellectual property to a competitor for money. For a recounting of Hanssen, his career, and likely motivations see: David A. Vise, The Bureau and the Mole (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2002). As to the frequency of “What took you so long?” comments, we may wish to ponder, especially from a game theory perspective, whether our opponents (the fraud perpetrators) view us as being more effective than we view ourselves. If such is the case, it is still useful information when crafting a strategy in a game theory environment.
1. Laura A. Hauth, “The History of New York’s Finest,” in Selected Readings in Criminal Justice, ed. Philip L. Reichel (San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 1998), 74-76.
2. Crime in America: Causes and Cures (Books by U.S. News & World Report, 1972), 13-15.
3. Randall R. Rader and Patrick B. McGuigan, “Criminal Justice Reform: A Blueprint,” from the book Criminal Justice Reform: A Blueprint by Randall R. Rader and Patrick B. McGuigan,
1. Copyright 1983 by Henry Regnery Publishing. All rights reserved. Reprinted by special permission of Regnery Publishing, Inc. Washington, D.C.
4. Ramsey Clark, Crime in America: Observations on Its Nature, Causes, Prevention and Control (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1970).
5. James Lardner and Thomas Repetto, NYPD: A City And Its Police (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2000), 256, 271, 278.
6. Milton Meltzer, Crime in America (New York: Morrow Junior Books, 1990), 19.
8. Id., 18-19.
9. The American Bar Association Criminal Justice Section and the Center for Continuing Legal Education, White Collar Crime 2002 (Chicago: ABA, 2002). Proceedings of meetings held at Miami Beach, Florida, February 27 to March 1, 2002.
10. The Hastings Center, The Teaching of Ethics in American Higher Education (Hastings-On-Hudson, NY: The Hastings Center, 1980), 2-3.
11. James H. Auten, “Productivity: A Challenge for the 80’s,” Police Training Institute, University of Illinois, in Selected Readings in Law Enforcement Management (Washington, DC: FBI Academy, U.S. Department of Justice, undated), II-47-52.
12. Special Agent William L. Tafoya, Editorial Note to “Futuristics: New Tools for Criminal Justice Executives,” presented March 25, 1983, at the 1983 Annual Meeting of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, March 22-26, 1983, San Antonio, Texas. Reprinted in Selected Readings In Law Enforcement Management.
13. Id., II-57, citing Jack L. Kuykendall and Peter C. Onsinger, Community Police Administration (Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1975), 13; and Thomas A. Reppetto, The Blue Parade (New York: The Free Press, 1978), 11.