Download (direct link):
6. Compressed. The section 'Copying and moving' lays out these sorts of rules.
7. Encrypt. See 'Setting compression on files or folders' if you missed this one.
8. Folder options. This one's new since NT 4.0. See 'Setting compression on files or folders.'
9. Keys. The 'Encryption' section elaborates.
10. NTFS disk. Again, the 'Encryption' section has the details.
File System Choices
The file system determines how the operating system organizes disk space. Which file system you choose has implications for security, speed, efficiency, reliability, recoverability, and compatibility. You must choose a file system before you format a disk partition (on a regular, 'basic' disk) or volume (on a 'dynamic' disk - see the section 'Basic versus dynamic disks' later in this chapter).
Microsoft's operating systems have presented a variety of file systems, most of which are incompatible with each other, as shown in Table 3-1.
Table 3-1: Windows Versions and File System Support Operating System Version FAT? FAT32? NTFS? Windows 95 (original release and OSR1) Y N N Windows 95 (OSR2 and higher) Y Y N Windows 98 and Me Y Y N Windows NT 4.0 Y N Y Windows 2000 Y Y Y Windows XP gives you three choices for a hard disk file system: FAT16 (or plain old FAT as it's sometimes called), FAT32, and NTFS - more specifically, NTFS Version 5. (Windows XP supports other file systems for other types of devices: CDFS, or Compact Disc File System, for CD drives, and UDF, or Universal Disk Format, for DVD drives.)
You're allowed to choose different file systems for different partitions or volumes on the same computer. For example, on a dual-boot computer, you may want to use FAT for the C drive (so that you can boot to Windows 98 or Windows XP), FAT32 for the D drive (which would contain Windows 98 or Me), and NTFS for the E drive (which would contain Windows XP). Note also that, in this example, the logical drives C, D, and E could all reside on a single physical disk. (A 'logical drive' is just a chunk of disk space that the user refers to with a single drive letter.)
Lab 3-1 shows you how to see which file system is in use for a given logical drive.
Lab 3-1: Checking the File System in Use
1. Double-click the My Computer icon on the desktop, if present, or choose My Computer from the Start menu.
2. Right-click the icon for the logical drive that you want to check.
3. Choose Properties.
The General tab of the computer property sheet appears.
4. Look at the third line down.
It should say 'File system: FAT,' 'File system: FAT32,' or 'File system: NTFS.'
The method that I outline in Lab 3-1 works for Windows 2000, NT 4.0, and Windows 9x, also. Another method that's unique to Windows XP/2000 is to run the Disk Management console plug-in, as I detail in Lab 3-2.
Lab 3-2: Running the Disk Management Utility
1. Right-click the My Computer icon, on the desktop (if present) or on the Start menu.
2. Choose Manage.
3. Click the Disk Management icon in the left window pane.
You can see the file systems listed in the diagram in the right window pane. For those of you familiar with Windows NT Workstation 4.0, you've just discovered the Windows XP version of the NT Disk Administrator utility.
Instant Answer If an exam question asks whether DOS, Windows 3.x, or Windows 9x can 'see' a FAT32 or NTFS partition over a network - for example, when connecting as a client to a Windows XP PC that is sharing its files as a server - the answer is yes. The Windows XP PC 'serves up' FAT32 and NTFS disks in a way that disguises, or abstracts, their underlying file system.
FAT, generally also known as FAT16, is the most compatible file system in the PC world. It works with DOS, Windows 3.x, Windows 9x, Windows NT, Windows 2000, and Windows XP. (If the exam refers to FAT12, that's the version used to format diskettes, or any volumes smaller than 16MB.)
Instant Answer The Windows XP setup program uses FAT to format the system partition if both
* NTFS isn't chosen
* And the disk is less than or equal to 2GB in size
However, FAT has limitations that are more serious as disk drives (and the operating systems, applications, and data files that those drives contain) become larger:
* A FAT partition can be no larger than 4GB (gigabytes) on Windows XP, 2000, and NT 4.0. That means, in turn, that a drive letter (such as C or D) can't be larger than 4GB because a logical drive must reside on no more than one partition.
* Windows 95, 98, and Me only let you set up 2GB FAT partitions.
* If you create a FAT partition that's larger than 2GB in Windows XP, 2000, or NT 4.0, some application compatibility problems may arise because of the 64K cluster size that such partitions require. (A cluster is the smallest chunk of disk space that the operating system can allocate; check cluster size with CHKDSK and look for the 'allocation unit' value.)
* With larger hard drives, the FAT cluster also must become larger. Otherwise, too many clusters would exist for the file allocation table to track. (Remember, FAT is a 16-bit structure with limited size.) Larger clusters, in turn, waste more disk space, especially with lots of small files.