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Photoshop provides easy access to the align and distribute functions in the Options bar. Just select the move tool (by pressing V) and there they are. You can also align and distribute paths by selecting two or more paths with the black arrow tool and clicking buttons in the Options bar. Setting up the grid Photoshop offers a grid, which is a regular series of snapping increments. You view the grid and turn it on by choosing View ® Show ® Grid. Turn the snapping forces of the grid on and off by choosing View ® Snap To ® Grid.
You edit the grid in the Guides, Grid & Slices panel of the Preferences dialog box, which you can get to by pressing Ctrl+K and then Ctrl+6 (z -K and then z -6 on the Mac) or by Ctrl-double-clicking (Win) or z -double-clicking (Mac) on a guide. I explain how to use these options in the "Guides, Grid & Slices" section of Chapter2. But for the record, you enter the major grid increments in the Gridline Every option box and enter the minor increments in the Subdivisions option box. For example, in Figure 1229, I set the Gridline Every value to 50 pixels and the Subdivisions value to 5. This means a moved layer will snap in 10-pixel (50 pixels divided by 5) increments. Figure 12-29 also demonstrates each of
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the three Style settings.
Figure 12-29: Here are the three styles of grid with the Grid Preferences options shown at the bottom. Using the measure tool
The final method for controlling movements in Photoshop is the measure tool. Alt-click (Win) or Option-click (Mac) the eyedropper tool a couple of times to select the measure tool. Then drag from one point to another point in the image window. Photoshop itemizes the distance and angle between the two points in the Info palette. The measure tool is even smart enough to automatically display the Info
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Part IV: Layers, Objects, and Text
palette if it's hidden.
From that point on, any time you select the measure tool, Photoshop displays the original measurement line. This way, you can measure a distance, edit the image, and press I (or Shift+I) to refer back to the measurement.
To measure the distance and angle between two other points, you can draw a new line with the measure tool. Or drag the endpoints of the existing measurement line.
Photoshop accommodates only one measurement line per document. But you can break the line in two using what Adobe calls the "protractor" feature. Alt-drag (Win) or Option-drag (Mac) on one of the endpoints to draw forth a second segment. The Info palette then measures the angle between the two segments. As demonstrated in Figure 12-30, the D1 item in the Info palette lists the length of the first segment, D2 lists the length of the second segment, and A tells the angle between the
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Figure 12-30: Here I measured the angle of the key, and then Alt-dragged (Option-dragged on the Mac) from the top endpoint to measure the angle between the key and lock.Tip The measure tool is great for straightening crooked layers. After drawing a line with the measure tool, choose Image ® Rotate Canvas ® Arbitrary. The Angle value automatically conforms to the A (angle) value listed in the Info palette. If you look closely, the two values may not exactly match. That's because Photoshop intelligently translates the value to between 45 and +45 degrees, which happens to be the simplest way to express any rotation. If you don't understand what I'm talking about, just trust in Photoshop. It does the math so you don't have to.
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9.1.5 Applying Transformations
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Photoshop treats some kinds of edits differently than others. Edits that affect the geometry of a selection or a layer are known collectively as transformations . These transformations include scaling, rotating, flipping, slanting, and distorting. (Technically, moving is a transformation as well.) Transformations are a special breed of edits in Photoshop because they can affect a selection, a layer, multiple layers, or an entire image at a time. Transforming the entire image
Photoshop has two varieties of transformations. Transformation commands that affect the entire image including all layers, paths, channels, and so on are listed in the Image menu. Those that affect layers and selected portions of layers are in the Edit menu, or in the case of selection outlines, in the Select menu.
The following list explains how to apply transformations to every pixel in an image, regardless of whether the image is selected or not:
Scale: To resize the image, use Image ® Image Size. Because this command is one of the most essential low-level functions in the program, I covered it way back in Chapter 3.
Rotate: To rotate the entire image, choose a command from the Image ® Rotate Canvas submenu.
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435 Photoshop CS Bible @Team LiB