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Dynamic Memory. A Theory of Reminding and Learning in Computers and People - Schank R.C.

Schank R.C. Dynamic Memory. A Theory of Reminding and Learning in Computers and People - Cambridge University Press, 1982. - 250 p.
Download (direct link): dinamycmemory1982.djvu
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his:
“I wer a hat H wouldn’t a hat wit to the gu price fro sucker ed “Well, Mexico, back in 1
ö Detailed example
The following is a reminding example that is taken from Norman and Schank (1982) (part of which was used in Chapter 4):
The “Suckering Experience”
Norman and Schank went to one of the University of California at San Diego cafeterias for lunch. Schank got into the sandwich line, where the server , a young woman, was slicing roast beef, ham, corned beef, etc. Schank saw a nice looking piece of meat on the side of the cut roast beef, and ordered a roast beef sandwich. However, the server had previously sliced some beef off, and she took this previously sliced beef for the sandwich It wasn’t nearly as nice as the meat that was still unsliced.
When they finished with the lines and got seated at their table in the dining room, Schank turned to Norman and said, “Boy, have I ever been suckered!” and he explained what had happened.
Norman said, “No, you haven’t been suckered, because my impression of the word suckered is that it implies serious attempt to defraud.”
“You want a real suckering experience?” Norman asked, “On our trip to Spain, we were driving across the country and we came to this tiny little village. We went in to a little store run by someone who looked just like a gypsy lady. We bought some cheese, and great bread, and really nice looking sausage, and some wine. Then we had it all wrapped up and we drove out of the town. We parked in a secluded location, found a hill with some trees, climbed up to the top and sat down, looking out over the beautiful countryside. Then we opened the wine and unwrapped the food. Garbage. All there was was garbage, carefully wrapped garbage. Now that was a suckering experience. The gypsy lady suckered us.” Schank thought the story pretty good, and he was reminded of an experience of his:
“I went to Mexico with a friend,” Schank said. “My friend tried to bargain for a hat. He started at 100 pesos and tried to get the price down to 50. But the guy wouldn’t go below 75. So he quit. Just then, someone else walked up, and bought a hat without bargaining. He paid the full 100 pesos So my friend went back up to the guy and said, “Look, if you give it to me for 50, you will have gotten your price from both of us if you average it out.” And he did So someone else was suckered, and my friend took advantage of it ”
“Well,” said Norman, “that reminds me of a similar incident that happened in Mexico, except that the result was just the reverse. This was a long time ago, way back in 1957, just after I graduated MIT. I had driven down to the Yucatan with
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Dynamic memory
some friends. There we saw some really lovely hammocks One friend, who w raised in Mexico and spoke fluent Spanish, bargained the price way down ˙ í then bought one. So I walked up and said, “I want one too.” But now the 'prjc went back to the original price, and tiy as I might, I couldn’t get the price dow to anything close to what my friend had just paid.”
“I haven’t thought about that incident in years-and it’s been 2.3 years since it happened. That is a pretty impressive piece of reminding,”
Our task, given the theory we have proposed here, is to explain this sequence of remindings in a way consistent with the theory. In essence we have three reminding experiences to explain:
Cafeteria story A
X buys food; doesn’t get what he expected; feels suckered 1: Y hears story A; gets reminded of story Â
Gypsy story Â
Y buys food from Gypsy; doesn’t get what he expected; feels suckered 2: X hears story B; gets reminded of story Ń
Hat story Ń
Friend of X bargains for hat in Mexico;
other American pays full price;
Friend of X gets lower price by pointing out to Mexican how he had suckered the other American 3: Y hears story C; gets reminded of story D
Hammock story D
Y bargains for hammock in Mexico; friend of Y gets great price; price is raised back up for Y
To see what structures might have been active here, consider the kinds of experiences that are being described. A TOP-level reminding experience is one where the contexts are different, but the goals and conditions are identical. A MOP-level reminding experience is one where the contexts are similar , and some expectation failure and explanation of that failure are also in common The contexts for the cafeteria and gypsy stories seem similar. They both involve buying food in a take-out style restaurant. Thus it can be plausibly argued that they both employ the MOP M-TAKE-OUT-FOOD. Further, they both contain an identical expectation failure, although the reminding (1) is not direct. In this case, Y’s explanation of the expectation failure in the cafeteria story did not agree with the explanation that X gave. X said suckering was the explanation but Y didn’t agree. When Y tried to construct a case that would have satisfied him as a suckering experience, that is when he found the gypsy story in memory. In Y’s memory, the gypsy story did involve suckering as the explanation for the expectation failure.
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