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Dynamic Memory. A Theory of Reminding and Learning in Computers and People - Schank R.C.

Schank R.C. Dynamic Memory. A Theory of Reminding and Learning in Computers and People - Cambridge University Press, 1982. - 250 p.
Download (direct link): dinamycmemory1982.djvu
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Scene-based expectation failures
We are now ready to answer the question of how an expectation failure causes us to modify a scene. We have seen that physical scenes are constantly evolving in two ways, first by taking on a societal aspect (modification due to other people’s goals) and second by taking on a goal-based aspect (modification due to our own goals).
Consider the failure from ORDER that we discussed earlier . The child asks the waitress for ketchup, but does so obnoxiously, and thus does not get it. The expectation that the person whose role it is to serve will, when asked, serve, comes from ORDER. When this expectation fails, it is marked as a modification of ORDER to be consulted next time. This is
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done because it was ORDER’S uncolored expectation, free from the script $RESTAURANT-ORDER, that failed. (Of course, the expectation might have been colored. For example, there might be a script, $DELICATEssen-ORDER, where the rules for ordering are slightly different. Subtle distinctions of that kind are held in scripts, i.e., as colored expectations from scenes.)
We saw an example of the modification of ORDER before when we discussed ORDER as it relates to M-PROVIDE-SERVICE in the Steak and the Haircut example. In that example, asking for hair to be cut in a certain way is done under the auspices of the ORDER scene. The expectation failure that occurs when the haircut is not short enough is marked in ORDER by an index. This index is, in this case, an explanation of why the expectation failed. Here, the expectation failed because, according to Y in the story, the extreme degree of the request was not insisted upon. Thus, a new addition to ORDER is made by marking, at the point of asking in ORDER, that if extremeness is required it must be emphasized. The explanation for this new rule in ORDER is tied, by a pointer, to the Haircut experience. This explanation by example will effect remindings until the reminding has occurred sufficiently often to cause the new addition to become a standard part of the ORDER scene.
Now consider the child in the crib who has the expectation that he will be played with when his diaper is being changed. Suppose he is not played with. In that case the expectation that has failed comes from the scene. To fix this, the child must (unconsciously of course) figure out whether this failure is physical (that is, something that was part of his expectations about the physical scene) or societal (that is, something that was his expectation about what people in his life do with him). To us it is clearly the latter. (A child will find this distinction extremely troublesome, of course. Children are not one-shot learners.)
An important step of learning then, is the extraction of the personal events in a failed expectation. When an expectation fails, we must find out whether the reason it failed was in some sense idiosyncratic, or whether there is something about one’s view of the world that was wrong. Expectation failures that depend upon personal attributes as opposed to societal or physical attributes, must be taken out of their original physical scene and treated separately. If they recur in another location, the hypothesis is confirmed, and a new personal scene is born A problem of some importance for an understander then, is correctly identifying the nature of an expectation failure in order to determine if a new scene or MOP should be created as a result of that failure.
Personal scenes that are created as the explanation for expectation
Generalized scenes and the universal MOP
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failures when societal or physical explanations would have been more appropriate, can be the basis for all sorts of psychological problems later on. Since, as we have argued, memory works in such a way as to group like experiences under a common heading, parents failing your expectations by not playing with you during diaper changing can become such a heading (or MOP) rather easily. The question is how often such newly created expectations get satisfied and how they get generalized. Frequent experiences of the same kind will solidify a MOP; in this case they will confirm one’s fears about parental behavior. The issue is not how one’s parents react in this one situation, of course. After some time, diaper changing stops. But expectations about parents, and generalizing from there, loved ones, and from there to people, continue to occur. Psychologically troubled people are likely to have negative sets of expectations (MOPs) about different people’s behavior toward them, that will have been confirmed by their experience. These are personal MOPs and thus separate from standard experience.
A scene-based expectation that fails because its goal is satisfied without the scene being invoked is a more complex, and more significant kind of failure than the simpler expectation failure mentioned above. Consider the child who is put to bed for the first time in a strange room. The child has suffered an expectation failure of a goal-connected scene. That is, assuming that early on the goal of S-REST is connected with being in the CRIB scene, we can assume that attempting to satisfy S-REST in another scene will be distressing for a child. This distress is solved by a scene reorganization (although often parents anxious to quiet baby do not have the patience to wait the days or weeks that it might take for the child to realize that it is normal for sleep to take place in locations other than his bedroom).
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