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Dynamic Memory. A Theory of Reminding and Learning in Computers and People - Schank R.C.

Schank R.C. Dynamic Memory. A Theory of Reminding and Learning in Computers and People - Cambridge University Press, 1982. - 250 p.
Download (direct link): dinamycmemory1982.djvu
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To consider an example: We can imagine a head of state on a state visit getting into an argument that disrupts the visit. Hearing about this could remind you of arguments with your mother on a visit, It could also remind you of a rainstorm during a picnic Recall that any given input is processed on many different levels simultaneously Imagine a context in which our supposed head of state visit took a great deal of planning, went smoothly at the outset, was expected to have great ramifications for future efforts at consummating an important deal, and then went awry because of some capricious act under the control of no one in particular that caused the argument and the subsequent diplomatic rift, The same sort of thing could be happening at a well-planned picnic that was intended to have important personal or business ramifications and then got fouled up because of the weather that in turn permanently ruined the pending deal,
A less fanciful example of the same phenomenon occurs in watching a play or movie. If you have seen Romeo and Juliet and are watching West Side Story for the first time, it is highly likely that at some point in the middle of West Side Story you will notice that it is the Romeo and Juliet story in a modern-day New York, with music Such a realization is a reminding experience of the classic kind That is, this reminding represents true understanding of the kind we mentioned earlier between McDonald’s and Burger King, Here again the reminding matches the most relevant piece of memory and that brings with it a great many expectations that are both relevant and valid
But the complexity in matching West Side Story to Romeo and Juliet is
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Dynamic memory
tremendous. In the Burger King example, it was only necessary to be in some sort of fast food script and proceed merrily down that script. But in this example, everything is superficially different. The city is New York, there is a gang warfare, there are songs. To see West Side Story as an instance of Romeo and Juliet one must be not only processing the normal complement of scripts and goals. One must also be, in a sense, summarizing the overall plot to oneself, because that is where the match occurs.
Thus, we have yet another level of analysis that people must be engaged in, in understanding, that of making an overall assessment of events in terms of their goals, the conditions that obtain during the pursuit of those goals, the events of their actions, the interpersonal relationships that are affected, and the eventual outcome of the entire situation.
Morals
When a new input is received, in addition to all the other analyses we have suggested, we also tend to draw conclusions from what we have just processed. Often these conclusions themselves can remind us of something. A moral derived from a story, the realization of the point of the story, and so on, can each serve as an index to memories that have been stored in terms of the points they illustrate or the messages they convey.
Such reminding depends, of course, on our having made the actual categorization or index for the prototypical story. In other words, unlike the other kinds of reminding that we have so far discussed, here we would have had to pre-analyze the prototypical story in terms of its moral message or point. Indeed, we probably do just that. Why else would we choose to remember a joke or story unless it had a point we were particularly fond of?
But here the problem is one of finding the adage or joke that is relevant. We found the drunk joke mentioned earlier because the plans being used were the same. Similarly, we can find morals when physical or situational structures such as scripts are the same. But what do we do when the only similarity is the moral itself? To find memories that way implies that there are higher level structures in memory that correspond to such morals. This also involves being reminded across contexts. We shall have to come up with structures that can account for such remindings,
Intentional reminding
The last type of reminding we shall discuss is what we label intentional reminding. Sometimes one can get reminded of something by just the
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right mix of ingredients, by the right question to memory, so to speak: In those circustances, reminding is not directly caused by the kind of processing that we are doing at the time Rather , the processing is directed by the desire to call a relevant past experience to mind. It is as if we were trying to be reminded. We, as processors, know that if only we were to be reminded of something here, it would help us in our processing. We thus try to get reminded. If we are trying to answer a question, then reminding is a form of getting the answer . In other words, we try to remind ourselves of the answer. But, even if what we are doing is simply trying to understand a situation, intentional reminding represents our attempt to come up with a relevant experience that will help us to understand our current situation Not all intentional reminding is consciously intended, however. Much of it comes from just thinking about what is happening to us at a given time, without any conscious feeling that we wish we were reminded of something. Our thinking of a way to solve a particular problem often causes us to be reminded.
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