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Dynamic Memory. A Theory of Reminding and Learning in Computers and People - Schank R.C.

Schank R.C. Dynamic Memory. A Theory of Reminding and Learning in Computers and People - Cambridge University Press, 1982. - 250 p.
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Jebousek, S , 3 jokes, 25, 34, 47
knowledge-based self-organizing memory, 207
knowledge packets, 8 Kolodner, J , 115 , 207, 213 , 217 Kowalski, D , 3
language, 2, 3
learning, 4, 22, 36, 46, 53, 60, 61, 62, 75, 110, 119, 128, 134, 153, 157, 171, 222, 224
Lebowitz, Ě., 115, 197, 198, 201, 205
Lehnert, W , 2, 46
long-term memory, 12, 13, 14, 206
McCartney, Ę,, 3 map, 182
memory-based processing, 2 memory confusion, 157 levels of, 12 memory organization packets, 83, 199, 201, 203, 204, 205, 206 memory organization structures, 15, 16, 25,
36, 51, 56 memory reconstructive, 13 search, 36
structures, 10, 11, 14, 19, 20, 25, 26, 28, 30, 81, 83, 87, 88, 90, 102, 106, 135, 140, 143, 148, 161, 176, 177, 178, 179, 181, 191, 192, 197, 198, 209, 223, 224
Index
233
mental dictionaries, 25 meta-MOPs, 99, 100, 103, 104, 107, 108, 109, 128 creation, 132 Minsky, M , 128
MOP, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 90, 91, 92, 93, 95, 97, 99, 100, 101, 102, 104, 105, 106,
107, 108, 109, 110, 113, 128, 129, 130,
132, 135, 142, 144, 147, 148, 149, 151,
155, 159, 166, 167, 176, 177, 179, 187,
188, 189, 190, 194, 197, 209, 212, 216,
223, 225 creation, 132 MOP-based expectation failure, 135, 136 MOP-based failure, 136 morals, 34
motivational explanations, 54, 56, 58 multiple indexing, 122 mutual goal, 111 pursuit, 94
pursuit against outside opposition, 71
named plans, 92
natural language processing, 10
Nelson, Ę , 3, 80
Newell, A., 177
Nilsson, N., 177
non-initiated goal expectations, 173 non-initiated goal frustrations, 173 Norman D , 59, 114, 185
outcome-driven reminding, 67, 69, 73, 75, 111
outcome-related failure, 75 outside opposition, 111, 165, 167
PAM, 4, 5, 225
personal MOP, 97, 130, 193, 194, 195 scene, 97, 143, 146, 178 scene definition, 97 script, 80, 128, 131 script-building, 128, 130, 131 physical MOP, 86, 97, 98, 109, 130, 193 scene, 95, 96, 138, 143, 144 definition, 95 place-holders, 87 plan-based reminding, 32 plans, 6, 25, 32, 33, 48, 52, 64, 67 application, 5 failures, 58 POLITICS, 4, 225 possession goal, 48, 111, 120, 121 prediction failures, 56, 60 outcomes, 63, 75 processing-based reminding, 25, 27, 29 processing structures, 67, 81, 83
prototypes, 101
“provide no opposition,” 72, 73 “provide opposition,” 73 PTRANS, 85
question-answering, 46 Quillian, M , 182
reconstructive memory, 13, 83, 90, 91, 94 re-evaluation of expectation, 140 relational information, 68 reminding, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 27, 29, 31, 32, 33, 36, 38, 42, 45, 48, 60, 62, 79, 105, 136, 176, 186, 187, 189, 191, 192, 213 types of, 25 reorganization, 136 replacement structure, 136 Riesbeck, Ń , 8 Rosch, E , 148
Sacerdoti, E , 177 SAM, 3, 5, 6, 7, 105, 225 satisfaction goal, 121 Sawyer ,J,3
scene, 15, 16, 40, 42, 44, 74, 84, 86, 95, 105, 106, 128, 129, 148, 168, 171, 172, 178, 179, 180, 181, 187, 191, 194, 195, 219
scene-based expectations, 147 scene-script relationship, 139 Schank, R , 3, 4, 6, 24, 27, 29, 30, 32, 35,
37, 40, 52, 59, 65, 78, 80, 81, 85, 91, 92, 99, 104, 114, 115, 120, 144, 165, 173, 182, 185, 207, 213, 223 script, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 23, 24, 25, 27, 29, 34, 38, 39, 42, 45, 52, 64, 82, 84, 86, 95, 100, 106, 128, 129, 133, 138, 151, 170, 171, 179, 223 application, 3, 4, 5, 40 definition, 7 situational, 6 personal, 6 script-based explanations, 49 memory, 9 processing, 6, 23 reminding, 39, 45 , 46 theory, 85 search, 15, 158, 177, 181 map, 181, 182 reconstructive, 180 short-term memory, 12 simple memory organization packets, 198, 199, 206 sketchy scripts, 8 Smith, D , 3
234
Index
Smith, E., 3
S-MOP, 198, 199, 201, 202 societal MOP, 86, 97, 109, 130, 145, 193 societal scenes, 96, 138, 143, 146, 178 definition, 96 specific structures, 9 spec-MOP, 199, 201, 202 static infoimation, 68 structure-exemplification, 62 sub-MOP, 213, 214, 215, 216, 218 subscene, 42
suckering, 60, 185, 186, 190, 191 experience, 59
Thematic Organization Packet (TOP), 68, 70, 71, 72, 73, 94, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 121, 159, 163, 165, 166, 177, 189, 190, 195, 225 indexing, 159, 166
thematic organization points, 111 theme, 48, 65 TOP-based reminding, 114 tracks, 6, 7, 39, 42, 82 Turner, T , 10, 82
understanding, meaning of, 24 universal MOP, 148, 150, 151, 152, 157 167, 168, 169, 220 universal scenes, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 154, 157, 167, 221 “utilize power,” 73, 111, 118
visually-based reminding, 26, 27
Wilensky, R, 2, 4, 30, 32 Woll, S., 3
Yale University, 2, 5
Index
157,
, 152,
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