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Dynamic Memory. A Theory of Reminding and Learning in Computers and People - Schank R.C.

Dynamic Memory. A Theory of Reminding and Learning in Computers and People

Author: Schank R.C.
Publishers: Cambridge University Press
Year of publication: 1982
Number of pages: 250
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Download: dinamycmemory1982.djvu

Handbook of Human Intelligence

This volume constitutes the most comprehensive account ever published of what is known and hypothesized about human intelligence. Leading authorities review the theories and research findings in theii own areas, place them in broader perspective, and point out both new directions lor future work and blind alleys. An introductory chapter provides an integrative framework and a concluding chapter addresses metatheoretical issues raised by the chapters as a whole.
A Snulx in I-'.xpcrinwnlal and Social Psychology F rederic Hurtled
Fifty years alter its publication in 1432 this book has become a classic in psychology. Sir Frederic Bartlett addresses both the questions of lu>w people remember and those of why they remember. His pioneering study of perception and recall anti the ways in which lhe\ are influenced by social factors is still provocative and readable.
Dynamic memory
A theory of reminding and learning in computers and people
To Diane
Published by the Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP 32 East 57th Street, New York, NY 10022, USA 296 Beaconsfield Parade, Middle Park, Melbourne 3206, Australia
Cambridge University Press 1982
First published 1982
Printed in the United State of America
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Schank, Roger , 1946-Dynamic memory.
Includes index
1 Memory. 2 Learning, Psychology of.
3 Artificial intelligence 4 Comprehension I Title
BF371.S36 001 5.3'5 82-135.3 AACR2 ISBN 0 521 24858 2 hard covers ISBN 0 521 27029 4 paperback
Foreword by Robert P. Abelson page vii
Preface xiii
1. Introduction to dynamic memory 1
Part I Reminding and processing 17
2, Reminding and memory 19
.3. Failure-driven memory 37
4. Cross-contextual reminding 62
Part II Structures in memory 77
5. The kinds of structures in memory 79
6. MOPs 9.5
7. TOPs 110
Part III Generalization and learning 12.5
8. Generalization and memory 127
9. Generalized scenes and the universal MOP 143
10. Indexing and search 158
Part IV Conclusion 183
11. Detailed example 18.5
12. Computer experiments 197
13. Some perspective 219
References 227
Index 2.31
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When Roger Schank and I wrote Scripts, Plans, Goals, and Understanding (SPGU) in 1977, it was a benchmark for us, The trails beyond that benchmark were uncharted, but we had a very good sense of where we had come from, and which new directions seemed worth pursuing. The present book represents one of those new directions, one that Roger has picked out to explore.
I am not a co-author on this one. Roger has run ahead along the trail on his own initiative. Nevertheless, we have had numerous conversations about the topics of this book, and he has asked me to write this foreword to give my perspective.
SPGU was an odd book. It was mainly about artificial intelligence programs for understanding texts about mundane human activities, but it also made some psychological claims-claims which had not been tested by psychological research in the standard fashion to which experimental psychologists were accustomed. There were, we explained, reasons for this. The necessity for experimental controls often imposes a task framework which seems unnatural to the process being studied, and may encourage unwanted strategic behavior on the part of the subjects. For example, in studying the processes which a reader uses on-line in story comprehension, the psychologist inclines either toward using short, fragmentary passages, or if the stimuli are longer , then toward interrupting the subject frequently during reading to pose some reaction time task. Pretty soon the subject may start anticipating and preparing for what he needs to do at the next interruption, hardly the mental mode that normally obtains.
The fussbudget demands of well-controlled experimental procedure are not necessarily fatal to the integrity of natural processes. There is now a great variety of methods for the study of cognitive functions, and some of them may minimize obtrusiveness. But it takes many years of research to develop efficient, powerful, bug-free experimental tools.
At the time we wrote SPGU, we werent willing to wait for psychologi-
viii Foreword
cal techniques to catch up to the level at which we were conceptualizing. At various phases of the writing process, I would worry about the lack of data pertinent to this or that idea, but Roger persistently argued that if we waited for experimental developments, we would never get our system down on paper. This was clearly an appropriate argument, and the publication of data-thin SPGU did not in fact set psychology back a hundred years. Instead, SPGU generated a great deal of interest and helped (along with other developments in cognitive science) promote a rash of pertinent experiments.
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