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Linux for dummies - Klimas M.

Klimas M. Linux for dummies - Wiley publishing , 2002. - 169 p.
Download (direct link): linuxfordummies2002.pdf
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6.6 Writing CD-Rs: cdrecord and cdparanoia
Disclaimer: Copying copyrighted material is illegal. Do NOT use the instructions below for anything illegal.
INTRO
Writing CDs used to be tricky, but these days I simply use (as root, in X terminal):
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xcdroast &
01/08/2003
If it works for you as it works for me, you don't need to read any further.
Perhaps still useful if xcdroast does not work on your system, here are the steps I once followed to write CDs using command-line tools. Please note that xcdroast is just a graphical front-end to the command line tools described below, so it will not work if the commands do not work. My only complaint s were that my low-cost, no-name "12x 8x 32x" CD-RW writes at top speed of 12x (for CD-R) but reads only at the speed of 2x (instead of 8x forCD-RW), and rips audio at 1x, no matter what I do.
SETUP
o All setup has to be done as root. Newer distributions (e.g. RedHat 8.0) may require no setup at all.
o Check your boot files if they pass a parameter to the kernel with the information that you have the ide-scsi drive: "hdb=ide-scsi". If required, add to the file
/etc/lilo.conf or /boot/grub/grub.conf (depending which boot loader your system uses): the option "hdb-ide-scsi" so that the line looks like this:
append="hdb=ide-scsi" #(for /etc/lilo.conf, at the end of the Linux "image" section)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.4.7-10 ro root = /dev/hda6 hdb=ide-scsi #(for /boot/grub/grub.conf)
Adjust the line above if your CD writer is not "hdb" (second drive on the first IDE interface). It makes your IDE-ATAPI CD-W(R) to be seen on your Linux system as a SCSI device. (It is not really a SCSI device, it is an IDE device, it just pretends to be SCSI.) Run lilo after making any changes to /etc/lilo.conf . Grub does not need re-running.
o Add the loop devices to the /dev/ directory if it is not present. This is not a obligatory, but a nice feature if you plan creating your own data CDs. The loop device will let you mount a CD image file (as if it was a already a filesystem) to inspect its content. The loop devices don't exist on my hard drive after Linux RedHat installation, so I create them using:
cd /dev/
./MAKEDEV loop
o Make sure that appropriate modules are loaded to the kernel using: lsmod
If required, add these two lines at the end of the file /etc/rc.d/rc.local so that the needed kernel modules are automatically loaded on system startup:
/sbin/insmod ide-scsi /sbin/insmod loop
These two kernel modules are needed for SCSI emulation of IDE drives and to support the loop devices, respectively. o Check, create or modify the device /dev/cdrom so it now points to the correct device , most likely: ls -l /dev/cdrom
ln -s /dev/scd0 /dev/cdrom #(if required)
You may need to do this because "/dev/cdrom" pointed to an IDE device (probably /dev/hdb) but now this changes since your CD-R is going to be in SCSI emulation mode.
There is also /dev/cdwriter that you may want to point to /dev/cdrom although it is not necessary on a single CD drive system: ln -s /dev/cdwriter /dev/cdrom
o Reboot so that the changes to /etc/lilo.conf take effect. Check if your CD-R(W) still works properly for normal reading. o Check if the program cdrecord is installed, e.g.,: cdrecord -scanbus
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If it is not installed, download the program "cdrecord" from your favorite Linux software repository (e.g., http://idirect.linuxberg.com/ ). Then install the source code, compile it, install the program, and make symbolic links so that the executable are easy to run (the installation would be much easier if you found a binary *.rpm file):
cd /usr/local
tar -xvzf /the_path_to_which_you_downloaded/cdrecord-1.6.1.tar.gz ls
cd cdrecord-1.6.1 make
make install ls /opt/schily/bin/
ln -s /opt/schily/bin/* /usr/local/
The program cdrecord is a spartan, command line utility for writing CD. There are several GUI front ends to it, but they will be useless if the underlying cdrecord does not work properly. My advice: use command line for some time--you get to understand how things work, get flexibility, and reliable results. Then you can install GUI front ends to make CD covers, and make things easier for Windows-educated users on your system.
o See if your cdwriter is recognized. If it is, it should now show in the output from this command:
cdrecord -scanbus
CREATING DATA CDs
o Create a CD image containing your data:
mkisofs -r -o cd_image input_data_directory
This makes an International Standard Organization (ISO) standard 9660-type filesystem containing the files from input_data_directory, but writes the filesystem to an ordinary file on the hard drive. This output file is an "image" of the new CD which I am creating. The option "-o" indicates that the parameter that follows is the output filename of this image. The option "-r" enables "Rock Ridge" extensions to the ISO protocol so that file attributes are saved, and it sets the file permissions so all the files on the CD are publicly readable (can be read by all user, not only the file owner). The filenames are abbreviated to the "8.3" DOS-type length but, since Linux supports so called "Rock Ridge" extensions to ISO9660, it also writes the full names and all the file permissions as well--this way the new filesystem is portable across all popular operating systems (DOS, MS Windows, Linux, UNIX, etc)--really convenient to the user.
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