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Digital photography just the steps for dummies - Jones F.

Jones F. Digital photography just the steps for dummies - Wiley publishing , 2005. - 240 p.
ISBN: 0-7645-7477-9
Download (direct link): digitalphotographyjust2005.pdf
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2. If possible, position your subjects so that the available sunlight falls on their faces. Doing so helps to assure that the face stands out in the picture. However, if the sun is directly overhead it may produce unattractive dark eye sockets.
Try using side light from the sun or other strong source. This can result in dramatic shadows or a soft halo effect. Avoid midday lighting if possible. Strong sunlight is a time to try side or backlighting.
Figure 3-15: The camera calculates the aperture based on the background lighting, leaving the subjects in the dark
3. If the light is strong behind your subject, use the flash to brighten your subject's face, as shown in Figure 3-16. The flash helps to avoid the common problem of a dark foreground in backlit pictures.
Using the flash is particularly good for head-and-shoulders portraits, since the flash fill in the face plus the sunlight produces an attractive halo around the subject's hair. If your camera has a center spot light meter mode, use it for flash-fill portraits.
Your flash may be automatic, but in Automatic mode, it flashes only when the camera calculates that you need more light. When using a flash outdoors or in a brightly lit room, you likely need to turn it on manually rather than depending on the Automatic Flash function.
4. Make sure your subjects don't squint at the sun.
5. Take the picture!
Figure 3-16: The flash compensates for the lighting problem
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Chapter 3: Snapping Digital Pictures
Snap a Landscape Picture
1. Set your camera to Landscape mode.
2. Shoot landscape pictures early morning or late in the afternoon as the lighting is best at these times for attractive landscape pictures.
Keeping the sun behind you at about a 45-degree angle is usually best. This results in good shadows and modeling of faces. On the other hand, you can shoot great dramatic photos with the sun in the photo. Find ways to screen or block the direct image of the sun with foliage, people, buildings, and so on. This results in a dramatic halo effect.
3. Hold the camera horizontally, in general.
Normally, landscapes call for a horizontal picture, but you may want to hold the camera vertically if your subject is a tall tree or something similar, as shown in Figure 3-17.
Choose a main point of interest in the scene, such as a cow in a field or a red barn.
If leading lines are available fences, lines of trees, or roads that lead toward the point of interest place yourself so these lines direct the eye toward the subject.
Following the rule of thirds, move the camera until the point of interest falls along one of the imaginary lines, being careful it does not occupy the center square of your grid.
Lift or lower the camera until the horizon line is either above or below the center of the frame, as shown in Figure 3-18.
Take the picture! Review it to make sure your composition follows all the main compositional rules and is pleasing to the eye.
Figure 3-17: Most landscapes are horizontal, but tall trees call for holding the camera vertically
Figure 3-18: A scene with the horizon line above the midpoint of the photo
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Photograph Pets and Animals
Photograph Pets and Animals
1. Get as close as possible to the animal.
Use a zoom or telephoto lens for photographing wild animals. Extremely small animals, such a birds, require the use of a strong telephoto lens (such as a 200mm or greater focal length) to fill the frame from 20 feet away. Bird photographers can expect to spend more money on equipment because of the need for an interchangeable zoom lens and a camera body and tripod that can support it.
2. Snap photos that show something characteristic of the animal. A kitten playing with yarn or ribbon, as shown in Figure 3-19, or a cat stalking a bug shows off the pet and speaks volumes about its personality.
3. Aim for an appropriate background. A shot of a cat stalking a bug is much more effective in the backyard than in the kitchen.
4. Frame the pet as the dominant subject of the composition, as shown in Figure 3-20.
Outdoor animal photography is a combination of planning, luck, and patience. Choose locations where you have a high probability of seeing the animal you want to photograph. Take the proper gear (such as a tripod and flash). Then wait patiently for that lucky shot to happen.
The photo is more interesting if it's natural rather than artificial. Animals in a zoo cage can be compelling, but shots in zoo areas that replicate a natural environment tell more about the animal. Pets, on the other hand, photograph well in a domestic setting. A kitten playing under the edge of bedclothes or a dog sleeping at the master's feet make great images.
Figure 3-19: A kitten playing with ribbon makes a great personality shot
Figure 3-20: A cat in the arms of its owner makes a natural context, but the subject here is definitely the pet
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