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Using this new OPR terminology, we can now say more precisely that the IT-organization model covered in this chapter focuses on the IT organization, its contained organizations, and the artifacts (resources) associated with the
Chapter 5: The IT-Organization Model
organization. The development process model covered in the next chapter then explains how activities (processes) operate in conjunction with these organizations and how the activities use, produce, and manage artifacts.
Worker roles are always defined within the context of a particular organization. Thus, the sum of the worker roles in the organization essentially defines the responsibilities of the organization. In addition, a worker fulfilling a particular role is always working in the context of a specific organization, not just a process. This is important for two reasons. First, skills and roles should be grouped to achieve synergies. These groups are the organizations. Second, it is important to know which organization is responsible for coordinating the person fulfilling the role—the worker. If a person fulfills roles in two different organizations, then, by default, this person is managed on the level of the next higher organization. This is necessary because only the next higher organization possesses an undisputable authority to coordinate the time allocated by this person to each of the suborganizations.
A detailed description of the organizational structure begins by presenting the roles and responsibilities common to all IT organizations. Although some of these roles and responsibilities may appear obvious to the seasoned developer or project manager, experience shows that many of them are not being defined and fulfilled effectively in projects. Ironically, the largest projects are often the worst offenders. A realistic project manager or other stakeholder in a software project will not permit himself or herself to get pulled into a situation where these roles are being ignored. Each one of them is critical to the project's success. Ignoring any of them increases the project's risk.
Worker Roles and Responsibilities
The roles and responsibilities of workers common to all organizations are as follows:
■ Organization manager. The organization manager is responsible for the overall fulfillment of an organization's responsibilities. The term manager simply communicates a higher level of responsibility and commensurate authority. Not only do managers coordinate in the context of the Convergent Architecture, they also may do hands-on content work, depending on the organization, and they may engage staff to help them carry out their responsibilities. Above all, the organization manager focuses on optimizing investments with respect to the overall business priorities as agreed with the management of higher-level organizations. More important, the organization manager is the safety net, picking up all the ad-hoc tasks and responsibilities that were not predefined explicitly but are deemed to fall logically in the organization. In particular, the organization manager
o Is the highest escalation point and top-level decision maker in the organization. o Is the principal communications and management interface to external organizations—the clients. This includes constructive feedback regarding designs and procedures in the form of requirements channeled to the requirements manager (defined later).
Chapter 5: The IT-Organization Model
o Defines, plans, tracks, and optimizes projects in the interest of client organizations. This includes coordinating and prioritizing requirements placed on the organization by others.
o Is a member of the steering team (discussed later) in the next higher organization and convenes and leads the steering team meetings in his or her own organization. o Plans and coordinates the suborganizations and is fully responsible for them. o Performs functional management of the personnel and facilities of the organization. This includes procurement and administration of all resources required by the organization. o Is a Convergent Architecture-specific instance of the RUP worker: a project reviewer primarily from the IT-organization perspective. The project reviewer from the IT architecture perspective is the chief architect (discussed later).
■ Project manager. Analogous with the organization manager but responsible for the overall fulfillment of a defined project's responsibilities, the project manager is the manager of a well-defined project. Once the organization manager has defined a project, the project manager runs the project from its initial planning through to the final project closure. He or she reports to the organization manager and may be asked to participate in steering team meetings.
■ Sponsoring client. The sponsoring client is a person or organization (external or internal) that sponsors a project. The sponsoring client may be an external software client or a representative of an entire software market (for example, a software product manager). In cases where the sponsoring client consists of a group or consortium, a client steering team is defined to provide an authoritative, representative body acting in the interest of the sponsoring client. The IT organization manager initiates the client steering team, if required, and coordinates its interaction with the rest of the IT organization.