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■ IT organization. This is concerned primarily with project design as well as the environment and mechanisms required to effectively coordinate manifold IT-related projects. It sets up and manages the following four internal organizations and represents their cumulative responsibility as the interface to external or client organizations.
■ Architecture organization. This is responsible for defining and maintaining the Convergent Architecture and ensuring its proper use. It also has technical, project management, and mentoring responsibilities focused on achieving the high returns of professional IT architecture across all organizations.
■ IT-support organization. This is responsible for critical support services shared by the other IT organizations, including all software development projects. It can be seen as the operational systems organization supporting the business of IT development. The IT-support organization is comprised of sub-organizations for change and configuration management, base infrastructure administration, project information management, and test center management.
■ System-development organization. This houses and manages the system-development teams. It coordinates individual software projects and the skills pool of developers working in these projects. It also defines the goals and guidelines for a successful software development project, as well as the structure, roles, and responsibilities for a successful software development team, the so-called canonical development team.
■ Operational-systems organization. This is the operational runtime organization responsible for deploying systems and maintaining their production use by other business organizations. The operationalsystems organization is comprised of suborganizations for software deployment, user support, and base infrastructure administration.
Chapter 5: The IT-Organization Model
Figure 5.1: The IT organization in a business context.
The following sections cover each of these organizations in more detail.
Features Common to All IT Organizations
In accordance with the principles of the architectural metamodel, we use the techniques of responsibility-driven design and object-oriented technology to describe the IT organizations. This begins by defining the features common to all IT organizations and outlining the structure and terminology used to describe all IT organizations. Readers familiar with object-oriented technology would intuitively call this the base IT organization.
The characteristics of the organization, process, and resource abstractions (OPRs), common to both the IT-organization model and its related development process model, are covered in the remainder of this section. OPRs are design patterns introduced by Dr. David A. Taylor in his book on convergent engineering (Taylor 1995). The models of the Convergent Architecture leverage and build on these patterns; however, Dr. Taylor's book should be consulted for the rationale and detail behind these patterns. To assist readers who are not yet very familiar with convergent engineering, the necessary OPR fundamentals are reviewed here in conjunction with descriptions of how they are applied specifically in the IT organization. You may want to refer to Figure 3.4 while reading the following descriptions.
Organization, Process, and Resource Abstractions (OPRs)
OPRs are units of well-defined responsibility. Such responsibilities also include the relationships OPRs maintain with each other, as described here. In general, OPRs are fractal in both structure and behavior. This means that they may be nested to any level, with each level maintaining compatible behavior. This applies to all subtypes of OPRs. For example, as you will see, the IT organization contains an architecture organization. They are both organizations, and as such, they inherit the compatible structures and behavior of an organization. The architecture organization may contain other organizations. Such nesting may go on indefinitely. This constitutes what is known in convergent engineering as a fractal structure because no matter how far you drill down into the details of the structure of the IT organization, you still see the familiar forms and behavior of organizations.
Persons familiar with object-oriented technology recognize that the power of
Chapter 5: The IT-Organization Model
fractal structures and fractal behavior is the result of applying the three pillars of object-oriented technology: data abstraction (encapsulation), type abstraction (inheritance), and function abstraction (polymorphism). However, you do not have to be an expert in object-oriented technology to understand and apply these powerful concepts to simplify the IT organization.
Organizations manage processes, resources, and other organizations. They group people and other resources charged with carrying out specific business processes. An organization coordinates and represents the cumulative responsibilities of its contained OPRs. For example, just as in "real" business organizations, an organization prioritizes the access and use of its OPRs, implements security measures, and tracks their use. In the IT-organization model presented here, organizations are defined according to their responsibilities, their workers (see "Resources"), and the responsibilities of these workers.