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Ging Visual Using Images Enhance Productivity Decision Making and Profits - Gerard A.

Gerard A. Ging Visual Using Images Enhance Productivity Decision Making and Profits - Wiley publishing , 2005. - 257 p.
ISBN 0-471-71025-3
Download (direct link): visualusingimagestoenha2005.pdf
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they walk away from it, is incredibly valuable. To give you an example, we put a 3D plasma screen in a music store here in Los Angeles. We showed music videos and DVD film trailers for feature films in 3D, right in the middle of a bunch of regular 2D screens running pretty much the same material. We exit-polled around 200 people coming out of the store, and we asked them whether they saw anything different. Typically about the same number of people noticed the 3D screen as noticed the 2D screens. There was only one 3D and 20 or so 2Ds, but when you asked them if they watched the 3D screen, and what did they see on it, 72 percent of them could remember exactly what they saw. ‘Yeah, I saw Shrek, I saw Madonna, the Dave Matthews Band’—whatever it was on the screen, they could tell you. When you asked them what they saw on the 2D screens, there was less than 10 percent recall. That’s what I call a very powerful tool.”
James Stephens, a scientist working at Eastman Kodak’s System Concepts Center, where much of the company’s research on advanced user concepts takes place, made an equally compelling case for the power of stereo 3D: “What we’re after is the creation of an experience that’s as good or better than being in the place that the imagery depicts. We also want to recognize in our plans that once you create these rich, immersive environments for people to go into, the next thing that they are going to want to do is navigate their own way through those spaces. We want to go from passive to interactive experiences within these virtual worlds that are photographic in nature. We want to bring down the cost of these things to where, ultimately, we may be able to replace the monitor that’s on your desktop or the television in your living room.
“What does it take for a human being to really feel present in an environment rather than feel that they’re looking at a picture?” Stephens asked. “What does understanding that then imply about the nature of the imaging environment that you need to create? We
need to engage a much wider segment of the observer’s field of view. We know that, depending on the individual, somewhere within 60 to 80 degrees—certainly by the time you have a 90-degree field of view—people go from the sense of looking at a picture to a sense of being in the scene.”
Stephens described a broad array of potential 3D application: “We start at the high end with military training and simulation, then focus on location-based entertainment experiences at places like theme parks, and work down to family arcades in the mall. Then we’re developing workstations where you can do design, engineering, education, and health. We have a very long list, including photo-realistic experiences that are meant to transport you to a different place. The findings on the value of immersive environments for comprehension and retention of information are striking. In the medical arena, the University of Washington did studies in which they took burn patients who have to go through excruciating treatments, and found that if you could engage them in these immersive worlds, it so captivated their cognitive attention that the pain-medicine levels dramatically decreased. In the antiterrorism realm, we envision viewing stations with fast scanning and reviewing capabilities that will allow airport screeners to see information about what is inside luggage in 3D, so they’ll be better able to spot potentially dangerous objects. Of course, the next step is to add some smart capabilities that recognize certain objects and highlight them for the screeners as they go by.”
John McIntosh, chairman of the Computer Art Department at the School of Visual Arts in New York City, looks at 3D from the perspective of working with the next generation of image makers. “With respect to visual literacy we have to think in terms of becoming 3D-literate, not just 2D-literate. That’s what the next generation is interested in. They don’t live in a 2D world; they live in a 3D world. How does a still image, or a sequence of images, give more
information more effectively? By using that simple spatial information to which we’ve become accustomed to generate another layer of information about the scene. It’s not just about aesthetics, it’s about the fact that technology enables us to process these images in more sophisticated ways. As a result, we will be able to extrapolate more information than we get from the current 2D surface reality that is affected by light and tone and contrast.”
McIntosh continues, “For instance, what if you could take two images of an office from two different perspectives and extrapolate from that all the depth information so that you could get accurate measurements—possibly within millimeters—of the entire office? Would that be more valuable than an old-fashioned 2D image? Absolutely. With 3D I can give you more information so that a picture of the room doesn’t just ‘look big’—I can inform you that the room actually measures 40 feet by 60 feet. You can extrapolate that information directly from the images, and then you can place image objects in the virtual space. Say, for example, you have an image of a nine-foot couch, or a six-foot desk, or a conference table—all of these images become very useful 3D information that solves real problems.”
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