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A Gentle Intro duction to TEX - Doob M.

Doob M. A Gentle Intro duction to TEX - MDOOB, 1994. - 96 p.
Download (direct link): gentleintroduction1994.pdf
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The general pattern in the \halign is as follows:

\halign{ Ctemplate line> \cr <first display line> \cr <second display line> \cr

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A T^X intro (Canadian spelling) Section 6: All in a row

Clast display line> \cr }

Both the template line and the display lines are divided into sections by the alignment

symbol &. In the template line each section uses control words in the same manner as does

\line-Q. The control word \hfil, for example, can be used to display flush left, flush right, or centred. Fonts can be changed using \bf, \it, etc. Text may also be entered in the template line. In addition the special symbol # must appear once in each section. Each display line is then set by substituting each section of the display line into its corresponding section of the template line at the occurrence of the #.

Consider the following example:

\halign{\hskip 2 in $#$& \hfil \quad # \hfil & \qquad $#$

& \hfil \quad # \hfil \cr

\alpha & alpha & \beta & beta \cr \gamma & gamma & \delta & delta \cr \epsilon & epsilon & \zeta & zeta \cr }

The template line indicates that the first section of the typeset text will always be set two inches in from the left and also be set as mathematics. The second section will be centred after adding a quad of space on the left. The third and fourth sections are handled similarly. Here is the result:

a alpha beta
7 gamma delta
epsilon C zeta

In this case the first display line is formed by substituting \ alpha for the first # in the template line, alpha for the second #, \beta for the third and beta for the fourth. The whole line is then saved for setting. This continues until all the lines are accumulated, and then they are set with each column being as wide as necessary to accept all of its entries (an implication of this accumulation process is that a table with too many entries could cause T^X to run out of memory; its better not to set tables that are more than a page or so long).

Hence the template line establishes the pattern for the table entries and the display lines insert the individual entries.

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A T^X intro (Canadian spelling) Section 6: All in a row

Sometimes horizontal and vertical lines are used to delimit entries in a table. To put in horizontal lines, we use \hrule, just as we did in the \settabs environment. However, we dont want the rule to be aligned according to the template, so we use the control word \noalign. Hence horizontal lines are inserted by putting \noalign{\hrule}; vertical lines are inserted by putting \vrule in either the template or the display line. But still all is not completely straightforward. Suppose we take our last example and change the template to get vertical lines and also insert horizontal lines.

\halign{\hskip 2in\vrule\quad $#$\quad & \vrule \hfil\quad # \hfil

& \quad \vrule \quad $#$\quad

& \vrule\hfil \quad # \quad \hfil \vrule \cr

\noalign{\hrule}

\alpha & alpha & \beta & beta \cr \noalign{\hrule}

\gamma & gamma & \delta & delta \cr \noalign{\hrule}

\epsilon & epsilon & \zeta & zeta \cr \noalign{\hrule}

}

doesnt give exactly what we want.

a alpha beta
7 gamma b delta
epsilon zeta

There are several deficiencies: the most obvious is the extended horizontal lines, but also the text looks somewhat squashed into the boxes. In addition, the text has a little extra space on the right rather than being perfectly centred. As in the \settabs environment, lines can be made taller by including the control word \ strut in the template. A further : 82 problem can occur when the page is set since T^X may spread lines apart slightly to improve the appearance of the page. This would leave a gap between the vertical lines, so we use the control word \of f interlineskip within the \halign to avoid this. Finally we can get rid of the lines sticking out on the left by deleting the \hskip 2 in from the template line. To move the table to the same position we use \moveright. Finally, we can see how to centre the text by noting that the extra space occurs in the template line after the # where the text is inserted. Hence we can improve our result by using

\moveright 2 in \vbox{\offinterlineskip

\halign{\strut \vrule \quad $#$\quad &\vrule \hfil \quad #\quad \hfil &\vrule \quad $#$\quad &\vrule \hfil \quad #\quad \hfil \vrule \cr \noalign{\hrule}

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A T^X intro (Canadian spelling) Section 6: AU in a row

\alpha & alpha & \beta & beta \cr \noalign{\hrule}

\gamma & gamma & \delta & delta \cr \noalign{\hrule}

\epsilon & epsilon & \zeta & zeta \cr \noalign{\hrule}



to get

a alpha /3 beta
7 gamma delta
epsilon C zeta

In general, if we want to construct a table with boxed entries that is centred on the page, we can do so by putting the \vbox within a \centerline-Q. But here is a trick that will produce a nicer result. If the \vbox is put in between double dollar signs, it will be typeset as displayed mathematics. Of course, there is no actual mathematics being displayed, but T^X will put in a little extra space above and below the table as is appropriate for a display. Hence a centred table with this nice spacing may be formed using the following four steps: (I) put a \vbox between double dollar signs, (2) put an \offinterlineskipand an \halign within the \vbox, (3) in the \halign put a template line with a \strut in the beginning, and a \vrule surrounding each entry, (4) each row of the table should be preceded and followed by \noalign{\hrule}.
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