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# A Gentle Intro duction to TEX - Doob M.

Doob M. A Gentle Intro duction to TEX - MDOOB, 1994. - 96 p.
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TgXbook: 355

TgXbook: 102

The control word \parshape can be used to make paragraphs with a greater variety of shapes.

ÒÙÕÜîîê: 101

Another useful control word for setting paragraphs is \item. It can be used to make various types of itemized lists, and is invoked using the pattern \item{...}. This causes the next paragraph to be formed with every line indented by \parindent and, in addition, the first line labeled on the left by whatever is between the braces. It is usually used with \parskip = 0 pt, since that control word determines the vertical space between the different items. The control word \itemitem is the same as \item except that the indentation is twice as far, that is, twice the value of \parindent. Here is an example:

ÒÙÕÜîîê: 102

\parskip = Opt \parindent = 30 pt \noindent

Answer all the following questions: \item{(l)} What is question I? \item{(2)} What is question 2? \item{(3)} What is question 3? \itemitem{(3a)} What is question 3a? \itemitem{(3b)} What is question 3b?

will produce

24
A T^X intro (Canadian spelling) Section 3: The shape of things to come

(1) What is question I?

(2) What is question 2?

(3) What is question 3?

(3a) What is question 3a?

(3b) What is question 3b?

d> Exercise 3.6 Make a paragraph several lines long and use it with the \item control word to see the “hanging indent.” Now take the same paragraph and use it with different values of \parindent and \hsize.

Now let’s see how to put space between paragraphs. The control word \parskip is used to determine how much space is normally left between paragraphs. So if you put \parskip = 12 pt at the beginning of your T^X source file, there will be 12 points between paragraphs unless other instructions are given. The control word \vskip can be used to insert extra vertical space between paragraphs. If \vskip I in or \vskip 20 pt appears between two paragraphs, then the extra space is inserted.

There are a couple of peculiarities of \vskip that seem quite strange at first. If you have \vskip 3 in and the skip starts two inches from the bottom of the page, the rest of the page is skipped, but the extra one inch is not skipped at the top of the next page. In other words, \vskip will not insert space across page boundaries. In fact, \vskip I in will have no effect at all if it happens to appear at the top of a page! For many types of vertical spacing this is quite appropriate. The space before a section heading, for example, should not continue across page boundaries.

A similar phenomenon occurs at the beginning of your document. If, for example, you want a title page with the title about half way down the page, you can not insert the space at the top of the page using \vskip.

But what if you really want some blank space at the top of a page? You could start the page with \u but this in effect typesets a one line paragraph containing a blank. So while nothing is typeset, the extra space due to the values of \baselineskip and \parskip will add extra space. An easier method is to use \vglue instead of \vskip to get the desired result. Thus \vglue I in will leave one inch of blank space at the top of the page. Tgxbook: 352

We can note in passing that there is another more general method to put material at the top of a page using the control words \topinsert and \endinsert. If \topinsert ...

\endinsert is used within a page, the material between \topinsert and \endinsert will appear at the top of the page, if possible. For example:

25

Section 3: The shape of things to come

\topinsert \vskip I in

\centerline{Figure 1} \endinsert

is useful for inserting figures of a prescribed size.

rIEXbook: 115

There are also some special control words for making small vertical skips. They are \smallskip, \medskip, and \bigskip. Here is the size of each one:

3.4 Line shape

For most material T^X does a good job of breaking up a paragraph into lines. But sometimes it’s necessary to add further instructions. It’s possible to force a new line by inserting \hfill \break in your input file. It’s also possible to put some text on a line by itself using the control word \line{...}; then the material between the braces will be restricted to one line (although the result will be spread out over the whole line and maybe horrible). The control words \leftline{...}, \rightline{...}, and \centerline{.. J will, respectively, set the material between the braces on a single line on the left margin, on the right margin, or centred. Thus

\leftline{I,m over on the left.}

\centerline{I’m in the centre.}

\rightline{I’m on the right.}

\line{I just seem to be spread out all over the place.}

produces the four lines:

I’m over on the left.

Other types of spacing can be obtained by using the control word \hfil. This causes all the extra space in the line to be accumulated at the position where \hf il appears. Thus if we alter our last example to \line{I just seem to be spread out \hfil all over the place.} we will get
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