Books
in black and white
Main menu
Share a book About us Home
Books
Biology Business Chemistry Computers Culture Economics Fiction Games Guide History Management Mathematical Medicine Mental Fitnes Physics Psychology Scince Sport Technics
Ads

the semantic web a gide to the future of XML, Web Services and Knowledge Management - Daconta M,C.

Daconta M,C. the semantic web a gide to the future of XML, Web Services and Knowledge Management - Wiley publishing , 2003. - 304 p.
ISBN 0-471-43257-1
Download (direct link): thesemanticwebguideto2003.pdf
Previous << 1 .. 62 63 64 65 66 67 < 68 > 69 70 71 72 73 74 .. 116 >> Next

2. bank—(sloping land (especially the slope beside a body of water); "they pulled the canoe up on the bank"; "he sat on the bank of the river and watched the currents")
3. bank—(a supply or stock held in reserve for future use (especially in emergencies)
4. bank, bank building—(a building in which commercial banking is transacted; "the bank is on the corner of Nassau and Witherspoon")
5. bank—(an arrangement of similar objects in a row or in tiers; "he operated a bank of switches")
6. savings bank, coin bank, money box, bank—(a container (usually with a slot in the top) for keeping money at home; "the coin bank was empty")
7. bank—(a long ridge or pile; "a huge bank of earth")
8. bank—(the funds held by a gambling house or the dealer in some gambling games; "he tried to break the bank at Monte Carlo")
9. bank, cant, camber—(a slope in the turn of a road or track; the outside is higher than the inside in order to reduce the effects of centrifugal force)
10. bank—(a flight maneuver; aircraft tips laterally about its longitudinal axis (especially in turning); "the plane went into a steep bank")
In WordNet, the various relations are really between synonym sets, or synsets. This means that the distinct words or phrases, called terms, that are synonymous at roughly the same level of abstraction (i.e., they are not at either the parent or child level, with respect to each other) are grouped together as a set. The synset therefore acts as a concept—a mental construct in the human being (or the information system or knowledge representation) that stands behind the term and represents the mental signification of the term. The concept, in turn, as we shall see, "stands in" for the real- or possible-world object. So, we distinguish term from concept in knowledge or semantic representations, though we cannot elaborate the distinction until the next chapter. A term is the label or string representation for the underlying meaning indexed by that term; the underlying meaning is the concept and the attributes, attribute values, and relationships to other concepts that that concept participates in. Figure 7.8 displays the taxonomic structure for the first word sense for bank.
Understanding Taxonomies
163
Group, Grouping <n Social Group
Organization
Institution
<nFinancial Institution
Depository Financial Institution Figure 7.8 WordNet word sense 1 for bank: Hypernymic taxonomy from root down.
In Figure 7.9, the first 3 of 10 total word senses for the word bank are displayed, along with each sense's hypernymic (parent of, or broader term than relation). Each => indicates the immediate parent of the preceding term (an increase in indentation is also used to indicate stepping up a level in the taxonomic structure). For example, consider word sense 1 of this: the sense of bank as a depository financial institution has immediately as parent financial institution, which in turn has as parent institution, and so on. Another way to look at this taxonomic structure is with the "root" of the taxonomic tree at the top, and note that we have reversed the arrow to <= to show that the parent is above the child.
The next step toward increasing semantic richness is the conceptual model. As we move from taxonomies and thesauri to conceptual models and logical theories, we are increasingly in the realm of ontologies. Although our framework is entitled the Ontology Spectrum, to show that the whole ontological or semantic space includes a range of possibilities in a progressive order, the upper right half more appropriately represents the common notion of ontology.
What is a conceptual model? A conceptual model is a model of a subject area or area of knowledge, sometimes called a domain, that represents the primary entities (the things of the domain), the relationships among entities, the attributes and attribute values (sometimes called properties and property values) of the entities and the relationships, and sometimes rules that associate entities, relationships, and attributes (or all three) in more complicated ways. A rule is simply something along the lines of the following examples:
■ If X is true, then Y must also be true.
■ If (W and X) or (Y and not Z) are true, then (U and V) must also be true.
where U, V, W, X, Y, and Z are simple or complex assertions about the entities, relations, or attributes.
164
Chapter 7
Word Sense and Hypernimic Taxomic Representation
Sense 1: depository financial institution, bank, banking concern, banking company —
(a financial institution that accepts deposits and channels the money into lending activities; "he cashed a check at the bank"; "that bank holds the mortgage on my home")
^ financial institution, financial organization, financial organisation—(an institution (public or private) that collects funds (from the public or other institutions) and invests them in financial assets)
^ institution, establishment—(an organization founded and united for a specific purpose)
Previous << 1 .. 62 63 64 65 66 67 < 68 > 69 70 71 72 73 74 .. 116 >> Next