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the semantic web a gide to the future of XML, Web Services and Knowledge Management - Daconta M,C.

Daconta M,C. the semantic web a gide to the future of XML, Web Services and Knowledge Management - Wiley publishing , 2003. - 304 p.
ISBN 0-471-43257-1
Download (direct link): thesemanticwebguideto2003.pdf
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Table 7.1 A Portion of the UNSPSC Electronic Commerce Taxonomy
10 00 00 00 Live Plant and Animal Material and Accessories and Supplies
10 10 00 00 Live Animals
10 10 15 00 Livestock
10 10 15 01 Cats
10 10 15 02 Dogs
Live Plant and Animal Material and Accessories and Supplies
Live animals
► Subclass of
Figure 7.4 Tree representation of Table 7.1.
Why Use Taxonomies?
Why should you be interested in classifying your information entities, in giving some semantics and structure to them as you would by defining a taxonomy? Consider a search on the Internet. You use a search engine to try to find the topics you are interested in, by using keywords or keywords strung together by ands and ors in a boolean keyword search. Sometimes you search to find products and services you would like to purchase. Other times you would like people and other companies to find the products and services that you or your company provides. In either case, if you or they can't find a product or service, it can't be considered and then purchased. You can't find what you need. They can't find what they need. If they can't find your valuable product or service, they will make a purchase somewhere else. Your product or service may actually be the best value to them of any on the entire Internet, but because they can't find it, it's of no value to them.
The most common use of taxonomies (really, the primary rationale for using taxonomies rather than other, more complicated knowledge structures) is thus to browse or navigate for information, especially when you only have a general idea of what you are looking for. Consider the Dewey Decimal System, the taxonomy encountered and used by nearly everyone who has ever visited a public library. The top categories (the roots of the tree) of the system ( are 10 very general buckets of possible book topics, in other words, 10 ways of partitioning the subject matter of the world, as Table 7.2 shows.
Chapter 7
Table 7.2 The Dewey Decimal System: A Taxonomy
000 Generalities
100 Philosophy and psychology
200 Religion
300 Social sciences
400 Language
500 Natural sciences and mathematics
600 Technology (Applied sciences)
700 The arts
800 Literature and rhetoric
900 Geography and history
Much like the Linnaeus and the United Nations Standard Products and Services Code (UNSPSC) taxonomies, each of these root categories has much finer elaboration of subject matter beneath them. Table 7.3 shows one example: Category 500, Natural Sciences and Mathematics.
Table 7.3 The Dewey Decimal System: 500 Natural Sciences and Mathematics
500 Natural sciences and mathematics 550 Earth sciences
501 Philosophy and theory 551 Geology, hydrology, meteorology
502 Miscellany 552 Petrology
503 Dictionaries and encyclopedias 553 Economic geology
504 Not assigned or no longer used 554 Earth sciences of Europe
505 Serial publications 555 Earth sciences of Asia
506 Organizations and management 556 Earth sciences of Africa
507 Education, research, related topics 557 Earth sciences of North America
508 Natural history 558 Earth sciences of South America
509 Historical, areas, persons treatment 559 Earth sciences of other areas
Understanding Taxonomies
Table 7.3 (continued)
510 Mathematics 560 Paleontology Paleozoology
511 General principles 561 Paleobotany
512 Algebra and number theory 562 Fossil invertebrates
513 Arithmetic 563 Fossil primitive phyla
514 Topology 564 Fossil Mollusca and Molluscoidea
515 Analysis 565 Other fossil invertebrates
516 Geometry 566 Fossil Vertebrata (Fossil Craniata)
517 Not assigned or no longer used 567 Fossil cold-blooded vertebrates
518 Not assigned or no longer used 568 Fossil Aves (Fossil birds)
519 Probabilities and applied mathematics 569 Fossil Mammalia
520 Astronomy and allied sciences 570 Life sciences
521 Celestial mechanics 571 Not assigned or no longer used
522 Techniques, equipment, materials 572 Human races
523 Specific celestial bodies and phenomena 573 Physical anthropology
524 Not assigned or no longer used 574 Biology
525 Earth (Astronomical geography) 575 Evolution and genetics
526 Mathematical geography 576 Microbiology
527 Celestial navigation 577 General nature of life
528 Ephemerides 578 Microscopy in biology
529 Chronology 579 Collection and preservation
530 Physics 580 Botanical sciences
531 Classical mechanics Solid mechanics 581 Botany
Chapter 7
Table 7.3 (continued)
532 Fluid mechanics Liquid mechanics 582 Spermatophyta (Seed-bearing plants)
533 Gas mechanics 583 Dicotyledones
534 Sound and related vibrations 584 Monocotyledones
535 Light and paraphotic phenomena 585 Gymnospermae (Pinophyta)
536 Heat 586 Cryptogamia (Seedless plants)
537 Electricity and electronics 587 Pteridophyta (Vascular cryptograms)
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