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- Acharya T.

Acharya T. - John Wiley & Sons, 2000. - 292 p.
ISBN 0-471-48422-9
Download (direct link): standardforImagecompressioncon2000.pdf
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3.4 Progressive DCT-based Mode 75
3.5 Hierarchical Mode 76
3.6 Summary 77
CONTENTS ix
References 78
4 Introduction to Discrete Wavelet Transform 79
4.1 Introduction 79
4.2 Wavelet Transforms 80
4.2.1 Discrete Wavelet Transforms 82
4.2.2 Concept of Multiresolution Analysis 83
4.2.3 Implementation by Filters and the Pyramid Algorithm 85
4.3 Extension to Two-Dimensional Signals 87
4.4 Lifting Implementation of the Discrete Wavelet Transform 91
4.4.1 Finite Impulse Response Filter and Z-transform 92
4.4.2 Euclidean Algorithm for Laurent Polynomials 93
4.4.3 Perfect Reconstruction and Polyphase Representation
of Filters 94
4.4.4 Lifting 96
4.4.5 Data Dependency Diagram for Lifting Computation 102
4.5 Why Do We Care About Lifting? 103
4.6 Summary 103 References 104
5 VLSI Architectures for Discrete Wavelet Transforms 107
5.1 Introduction 107
5.2 A VLSI Architecture for the Convolution Approach 109
5.2.1 Mapping the DWT in a Semi-Systolic Architecture 110
5.2.2 Mapping the Inverse DWT in a Semi-Systolic Architecture 112
5.2.3 Unified Architecture for DWT and Inverse DWT 116
5.3 VLSI Architectures for Lifting-based DWT 118
5.3.1 Mapping the Data Dependency Diagram in Pipeline Architectures 119
5.3.2 Enhanced Pipeline Architecture by Folding 120
5.3.3 Flipping Architecture 121
5.3.4 A Register Allocation Scheme for Lifting 121
5.3.5 A Recursive Architecture for Lifting 124
5.3.6 A DSP-Type Architecture for Lifting 125
5.3.7 A Generalized and Highly Programmable Architecture
for Lifting 126
5.3.8 A Generalized Two-Dimensional Architecture 127
5.4 Summary 133
x CONTENTS
References 133
6 JPEG2000 Standard 137
6.1 Introduction 137
6.2 Why JPEG2000? 139
6.3 Parts of the JPEG2000 Standard 142
6.4 Overview of the JPEG2000 Part 1 Encoding System 145
6.5 Image Preprocessing 145
6.5.1 Tiling 145
6.5.2 DC Level Shifting 146
6.5.3 Multicomponent Transformations 146
6.6 Compression 147
6.6.1 Discrete Wavelet Transformation 149
6.6.2 Quantization 152
6.6.3 Region of Interest Coding 153
6.6.4 Rate Control 156
6.6.5 Entropy Encoding 157
6.7 Tier-2 Coding and Bitstream Formation 158
6.8 Summary 158 References 159
7 Coding Algorithms in JPEG2000 163
7.1 Introduction 163
7.2 Partitioning Data for Coding 164
7.3 Tier-1 Coding in JPEG2000 164
7.3.1 Fractional Bit-Plane Coding 165
7.3.2 Examples of BPC Encoder 177
7.3.3 Binary Arithmetic Coding—MQ-Coder 185
7.4 Tier-2 Coding in JPEG2000 195
7.4.1 Basic Tag Tree Coding 196
7.4.2 Bitstream Formation 197
7.4.3 Packet Header Information Coding 201
7.5 Summary 211 References 211
8 Code-Stream Organization and File Format
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Syntax and Code-Stream Rules
213
213
213
CONTENTS
XI
8.2.1 Basic Rules 215
8.2.2 Markers and Marker Segments Definitions 216
8.2.3 Headers Definition 216
8.3 File Format for JPEG2000 Part 1: JP2 format 218
8.3.1 File Format Organization 220
8.3.2 JP2 Required Boxes 220
8.4 Example 223
8.5 Summary 225 References 225
9 VLSI Architectures for JPEG2000 227
9.1 Introduction 227
9.2 A JPEG2000 Architecture for VLSI Implementation 228
9.3 VLSI Architectures for EBCOT 231
9.3.1 Combinational Logic Blocks 233
9.3.2 Functionality of the Registers 235
9.3.3 Control Mechanism for the EBCOT Architecture 237
9.4 VLSI Architecture for Binary Arithmetic Coding: MQ-Coder 242
9.5 Decoder Architecture for JPEG2000 245
9.6 Summary of Other Architectures for JPEG2000 246
9.6.1 Pass-Parallel Architecture for EBCOT 246
9.6.2 Memory-Saving Architecture for EBCOT 247
9.6.3 Computationally Efficient EBCOT Architecture by Skipping 248
9.7 Summary 249 References 249
10 Beyond Part 1 of JPEG2000 Standard 253
10.1 Introduction 253
10.2 Part 2: Extensions 253
10.2.1 Variable DC Offset 254
10.2.2 Variable Scalar Quantization Offsets 254
10.2.3 Trellis-Coded Quantization 254
10.2.4 Visual Masking 255
10.2.5 Arbitrary Wavelet Decomposition 256
10.2.6 Arbitrary Wavelet Transformation 257
10.2.7 Single Sample Overlap Discrete Wavelet Transformation 257
10.2.8 Multiple Component Transforms 258
xii CONTENTS
10.2.9 Nonlinear Transformations 259
10.2.10 Region of Interest Extension 261
10.2.11 File Format Extension and Metadata Definitions 261
10.3 Part 3: Motion JPEG2000 261
10.4 Part 4: Conformance Testing 264
10.5 Part 5: Reference Software 265
10.6 Part 6: Compound Image File Format 265
10.7 Other Parts (7-12) 265
10.8 Summary 266 References 267
Index 269
About the Authors
273
Preface
The growing demand for interactive multimedia technologies, in various application domains in this era of wireless and Internet communication, necessitated a number of desirable properties to be included in image and video compression algorithms. Accordingly, current and future generation image compression algorithms should not only demonstrate state-of-the-art performance, it should also provide desirable functionalities such as progressive transmission in terms of image fidelity as well as resolution, scalability, region-of-interest coding, random access, error resilience, handling large-size images of different types, etc. Many of these desired functionalities are not easily achievable by the current JPEG standard. The algorithms to implement different modes of the current JPEG standard are independent from each other. The lossless compression algorithm in current JPEG standard is completely different from the lossy compression mode and also the progressive and hierarchical modes. JPEG2000 is the new still image compression standard that has been developed under the auspices of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The systems architecture of this new standard has been defined in such a unified manner that it offers a single unified algorithmic framework and a single syntax definition of the code-stream organization so that different modes of operations can be handled by the same algorithm and the same syntax definition offers the aforementioned desirable functionalities. Moreover, the JPEG standard was defined in 1980s before the emergence of the Internet age. Many developments since then have changed the nature of research
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