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biopharmaceuticals biochemistry and biotecnology - Walsh G.

Walsh G. biopharmaceuticals biochemistry and biotecnology - John Wiley & Sons, 2003. - 572 p.
ISBN 0-470-84327-6
Download (direct link): biochemistryandbiotechnology2003.pdf
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Calcitonin produced by virtually all species is a single-chain, 32 amino acid residue polypeptide, displaying a molecular mass in the region of 3500 Da. Salmon calcitonin differs in sequence from the human hormone by nine amino acid residues. It is noteworthy, however, as it is approximately 100-fold more potent than the native hormone in humans. The higher potency appears due to both a greater affinity for the receptor and greater resistance to degradation in vivo. As such, salmon, as opposed to human calcitonin, is used clinically. Traditional clinical preparations were manufactured by direct chemical synthesis, although a recombinant form of the molecule has now gained marketing approval. The recombinant calcitonin is produced in an engineered E. coli strain. Structurally, salmon calcitonin displays C-terminal amidation. A C-terminal amide group (— CONH2) replacing the usual carboxyl group is a characteristic feature of many polypeptide hormones. If present, it is usually required for full biological activity/ stability. As E. coli cannot carry out post-translational modifications, the amidation of the recombinant calcitonin is carried out in vitro using an a-amidating enzyme which is itself produced by recombinant means in an engineered CHO cell line. The purified, amidated finished
product is formulated in an acetate buffer and filled into glass ampoules. The (liquid) product exhibits a shelf-life of 2 years when stored at 2-8°C.
Several hormone preparations have a long history of use as therapeutic agents. In virtually all instances they are administered simply to compensate for lower than normal endogenous production of the hormone in question. Since it first became medically available, insulin has saved or prolonged the lives of millions of diabetics. Gonadotrophins have allowed tens, if not hundreds, of thousands of sub-fertile individuals to conceive. Growth hormone has improved the quality of life of thousands of people of short stature. Most such hormones were in medical use prior to the advent of genetic engineering. Recombinant hormonal preparations are now however gaining greater favour, mainly on safety grounds. Hormone therapy will remain a central therapeutic tool for clinicians for many years to come.
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