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Organic Synteses vol 23 - Smith L.I.

Smith L.I. Organic Synteses vol 23 - John Wiley & Sons, 1943. - 63 p.
Download (direct link): organicsynthesesvol231943.pdf
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2. Stirring results in a better separation of acetic acid from the oil and prevents the formation of an emulsion.
3. At lower temperatures, hydrolysis is slow.
4. If the temperature becomes much higher, side reactions occur and loss in yield and purity results. The heat of reaction is sufficient to maintain the required temperature.
5. If the reaction mixture is cooled at this point, some of the mandelic acid may crystallize. If this happens, the precipitate should not be filtered, as it is contaminated with sodium chloride.
6. The submitters report that when 1 kg. of acetophenone is used yields of 0.98-1.06 kg. of mandelic acid are obtained.
1 Gautier, Ann. chim. phys. (6) 14, 348, 379, 385, 396 (1888).
MANDELIC ACID
51
3. Methods of Preparation
Dichloroacetophenone has been prepared by chlorination of acetophenone with and without aluminum chloride;1 by action of dichloroacetyl chloride upon benzene and aluminum chloride;1 by action of hypochlorous acid upon phenylacetylene;2 by heating trichloromethylphenylcarbinol;3 and by chlorination of phenylacetylene in alcohol.4
Mandelic acid has been prepared by hydrolysis of mandeloni-trile (prepared in turn from benzaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide or from benzaldehyde, sodium bisulfite, and sodium cyanide);5 by action of water at 180 upon trichloromethylphenylcarbinol;6 by action of potassium carbonate upon a heated mixture of benzaldehyde and chloroform;7 by action of warm, dilute alkali upon dibromoacetophenone;8 and by action of warm, dilute sodium hydroxide upon phenylglyoxal.9
2 Wittorf, J. Russ. Phys. Chem. Soc. 32, 88 (1900) [Chem. Zentr. 1900, II, 29].
Kotz, J. prakt. Chem. (2) 90, 299, 304 (1914).
Jackson, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 56, 977 (1934).
5 Org. Syn. Coll. Vol. 1, 1941, 336, Spiegel, Ber. 14, 239 (1881); Ultee, Rec. trav. chim. 28,254 (1909); MUller, Ber. 4,980 (1871).
* Jocicz, J. Russ. Phys. Chem. Soc. 29,100 (1897) [Chem. Zentr. 1897, 1, 1013].
7 Savariau, Compt. rend. 146, 297 (1908).
8 Engler and Wohrle, Ber. 20, 2202 (1887).
9 Pechmann, Ber. 20, 2905 (1887).
52
ORGANIC SYNTHESES
Z-MENTHOXYACETIC ACID
2C10H19OH + 2Na > 2CioHigONa -f- H2
2Ci0Hi9ONa + C1CH2C02H -
CioHigOCHaCOaNa + C10H19OH + NaCl
CH3
I
CH
/ \
H2C CH2
I I +
H2C CH0CH2C02Na
\ /
CH
I
CH / \
H3C

I
CH / \
H2C CH2
I I + NaCl + H20
H2C CH0CH2C02H
\ /
CH
I
CH
/ \

Submitted by . T. Leffler and A. E. Calkins. Checked by R. L. Shriner and . H. Tilford.
1. Procedure
A 5-1. three-necked round-bottomed flask is fitted with a mechanical stirrer (Note 1) and a reflux condenser bearing a calcium chloride tube. A solution of 400 g. (2.56 moles) of /-menthol (crystals, m.p. 41-42) in 11. of dry toluene (Note 2) is placed in the flask, and to it is added 70 g. (3.04 gram atoms) of clean
Z-MENTHOXYACETIC ACID
53
sodium. The third neck of the flask is then tightly closed with a cork stopper, and the flask is heated in an oil bath until the toluene refluxes gently. As soon as the sodium has melted, stirring is begun and is maintained at such a rate that the sodium is broken into fine globules.
After the reaction mixture has been refluxed for fifteen hours, the stirrer is stopped, the reaction mixture is allowed to cool, and the excess sodium (Note 3) is carefully removed. The apparatus is then assembled as before (Note 1), but with a 1-1. separatory funnel fitted into the third neck of the flask (Note 4). The temperature of the oil bath is raised to 85-90, and with continued stirring, a solution of 95 g. (1.01 moles) of monochloroacetic acid (Note 5) in 800 cc. of warm dry toluene is added from the separatory funnel at such a rate that refluxing is not too vigorous. A heavy precipitate of sodium chloroacetate forms immediately. After all the chloroacetic acid has been added, the mixture is refluxed and stirred for forty-eight hours. During this period, the stirring must be as thorough as possible; it is necessary to add
1-1.51. of dry toluene, and the stirrer must be stopped at frequent intervals while the solid material is removed from the side of the flask.
When the reaction is complete, the flask is removed from the oil bath and the cooled reaction mixture is transferred to a 5-1. separatory funnel and extracted with three 1-1. portions of water (Note 6). The water extract is carefully acidified with 20 per cent hydrochloric acid, and the crude menthoxyacetic acid, which collects on top as a brown oil, is extracted with three 200-cc. portions of benzene. The benzene extracts are combined, and the solvent is removed by distillation on a steam cone. The residue is then fractionally distilled under reduced pressure. The fraction boiling below 100/20 mm. is mainly water and toluene. The second fraction boiling at 100-115/8-10 mm. is impure /-menthol and may be saved for redistillation (Note 6). The yield of /-menthoxyacetic acid, boiling at 134-137/2 mm. (150-155/4 mm.), [cc]d = 92.4, amounts to 166-180 g. (78-84 per cent of the theoretical amount).
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