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Supercritical fluid cleaning - McHardy J.

McHardy J., Sawan P.S. Supercritical fluid cleaning - Noyes publications, 1998. - 304 p.
Download (direct link): spercrificalfluidcleaning1998.pdf
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A Survey on the Use of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide as a Cleaning Solvent
W. Dale Spall and Kenneth E. Laintz
Because the physiochemical properties of supercritical carbon dioxide make it ideally suited for removing commonly encountered contaminants found in the cleaning of a wide variety of components and assemblies, an overall survey was conducted using a small scale supercritical fluid extraction system to investigate removal efficiencies of a wide variety of compounds from an assortment of surfaces using supercritical CO2. Data are presented demonstrating the successful removal of numerous oils, fluids, adhesives, and chemical compounds from a wide variety of surfaces with supercritical CO2. In total, the removal of 145 compounds from some 49 different substrates was investigated. It was found that to a first approximation, cleaning with supercritical CO2 appears to be contaminant dependent while being surface independent, with an 85-99% removal rate for the wide variety of the compounds investigated.
Many industrial facilities currently using chlorocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) for the cleaning of a variety of items are facing a difficult situation because of the U.S. amendments to the Montreal Protocol (1987) banning the use of CFCs at the end of 1995. For this reason, these companies must implement economical replacement technologies for cleaning applications. Of course, any solvent cleaning replacement technology must take into account the type of items being cleaned, the contaminant to be removed from these items, and the final cleanliness level that the items must possess. Alternate technologies such as aqueous and semi-aqueous based systems are currently being implemented. While these systems have advantages over CFC cleaning methods, these systems suffer from disadvantages that may not be desirable in many cleaning operations. In the case of aqueous systems, disadvantages include long drying times and flash rusting in addition to many parts not being amenable to water cleansing. In addition, water treatment costs may also be prohibitive. Many semi-aqueous cleaning systems employ toxic terpenes or CFC replacements, and it is only a matter of time before these compounds face regulation. A final alternative technology involves the use of supercritical fluids, which have been used in food, fragrance, and petroleum processes for years, for the extraction of many common compounds.
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