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Supercritical fluid cleaning - McHardy J.

McHardy J., Sawan P.S. Supercritical fluid cleaning - Noyes publications, 1998. - 304 p.
Download (direct link): spercrificalfluidcleaning1998.pdf
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Evaluation of Supercritical Fluid Interactions with Polymeric Materials
Samuel P, Saw an, Yeong-Tarng Shieh, Jan-Hon Su, Gurusamy Manivannan and W Dale Spall
1.0 BACKGROUND
Supercritical fluid technology has been widely employed for extraction and purification processes in foods and pharmaceuticals industry*1 M31 and for techniques such as supercritical fluid chromatography, Recently there has been interest in applying the use of super and subcritical fluids, such as carbon dioxide, to substitute for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in cleaning applications*71'*91 where the choice of environmentally acceptable alternatives are very limited. There exists a great need to develop information on the use of carbon dioxide for cleaning applications, addressing specific issues such as interaction with polymer materials, modification of treated polymer surfaces, changes in the mechanical properties, etc.
Cleaning considerations entail a wide variety of issues. For example, the definition of cleaning (i.e., how clean is clean), the removal or solubility of a wide variety of possible contaminants or agents including particles, and the potential interaction of the cleaning material with the substance to be cleaned, to name but a few issues. In general, most metals and glasses would be expected to have little interaction with carbon dioxide due to their high crystallinities and their general imperviousness to gases. Polymeric materials however may be expected to show a wide diversity of interaction with carbon dioxide to vary from essentially no effect to very pronounced effects based upon dissolution or even chemical degradation of a polymeric substance, 121 To this end, we have been exploring the applicability of using super and subcritical carbon dioxide for precision cleaning applications where the interaction of the fluid with the polymeric materials of construction is being evaluated.
Supercritical carbon dioxide has a critical temperature of 31C and a critical pressure of 1070 psi. Carbon dioxide as a cleaning solvent has a number of advantages; these include: low human toxicity, no waste solvent, low cost, ready availability, complete recovery of extracted agents and extracted substances, environmental acceptability, complete and ready recycling, etc.
Replacement of chlorofluorocarbons have become a high international priority owing to their implication in ozone depletion. Thus, suitable alternatives to CFCs are being widely sought to meet industrial and commercial needs. Super- and subcritical carbon dioxide appears to have many similarities to CFCs in the range of compounds that it can solubilize, and it appears to be an ideal candidate for further exploration. Another important characteristic of the supercritical phase is the viscosity of the phase itself. Supercritical fluids have viscosities similar to gases with extraction capabilities similar to liquids. Thus, a SCF possesses the ability to clean under small cavities such as beneath the package of surface-mounted electronic components. In such cases, one need not be concerned about issues such as surface tension, since the supercritical fluid is perfectly wetting (in a single phase, the concept of wetting is inappropriate and is used here simply to illustrate the concept that surface tension is not a relevant variable). Thus, situations where there are small cavities do
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