Books
in black and white
Main menu
Home About us Share a book
Books
Biology Business Chemistry Computers Culture Economics Fiction Games Guide History Management Mathematical Medicine Mental Fitnes Physics Psychology Scince Sport Technics
Ads

Supercritical fluid cleaning - McHardy J.

McHardy J., Sawan P.S. Supercritical fluid cleaning - Noyes publications, 1998. - 304 p.
Download (direct link): spercrificalfluidcleaning1998.pdf
Previous << 1 < 2 > 3 4 5 6 7 8 .. 101 >> Next

HANDBOOKOF INDUSTRIAL REFRACTORIES TECHNOLOGY: by Stephen C. Carniglia and Gordon L. Barna
SHOCKWAVES FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS: edited by Lawrence E. Murr
SOL-GEL TECHNOLOGY FOR THIN FILMS, FIBERS, PREFORMS, ELECTRONICS AND SPECIALTY SHAPES: edited by Lisa C. Klein
SPECIAL MELTING AND PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES: edited by G. K. Bhat
Contributors
Shirish M. Chitanvis
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Los Alamos, NM
John L. Fulton
Battelle
Pacific Northwest Laboratories Richland, WA
John E. Giles, Jr.
Honeywell
Space and Strategic Avionics Div. Clearwater, FL
Michael O. Hogan Battelle
Pacific Northwest Laboratories Richland, WA
Glen Huse
Green Oaks, IL
Kevin Jackson
Battelle
Pacific Northwest Laboratories Richland, WA
Kenneth E. Laintz
Isotag L.L.C.
Isotag Research Los Alamos, NM
Gurusamy Manivannan
BioPolymerix Tyngsboro, MA
John McHardy
Hughes Aircraft Company El Segundo, CA
Ramamurthy Nagarajan IBM
San Jose, CA
Chris W. Patterson
Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, NM
Max R. Phelps
Battelle
Pacific Northwest Laboratories Richland, WA
Robert J. Purtell
IBM
Thomas J. Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights, NY
Samuel P. Sawan
Polymer Science/Plastics Engineering Program
University of Massachusetts, Lowell Lowell, MA
Yeong-Tarng Shieh
Polymer Science/Plastics Engineering Program
University of Massachusetts, Lowell Lowell, MA
Laura J. Silva Battelle
Pacific Northwest Laboratories Richland, WA
L. Dale Sivils
Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, NM
Charles W. Smith
Fairview, PA
W. Dale Spall
Isotag L.L.C.
Isotag Research Los Alamos, NM
Jan-Hon Su
Polymer Science/Plastics Engineering Program
University of Massachusetts, Lowell Lowell, MA
Robert G. Honeywell, Jr.
Honeywell Inc.
Glendale, AZ
NOTICE
To the best of our knowledge the information in this publication is accurate; however the Publisher does not assume any responsibility or liability for the accuracy or completeness of, or consequences arising from, such information. This book is intended for informational purposes only. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use by the Publisher. Final determination of the suitability of any information or product for use contemplated by any user, and the manner of that use, is the sole responsibility of the user. We recommend that anyone intending to rely on any recommendation of materials or procedures mentioned in this publication should satisfy himself as to such suitability, and that he can meet all applicable safety and health standards.
Preface
Although supercritical fluid (SCF) technology is now widely used in extraction and purification processes (in the petrochemical, food and pharmaceuticals industries), this book is the first to address the new application of cleaning. Our objective was to provide a roadmap for readers who want to know whether SCF technology can meet their own processing and cleaning needs. It should be particularly helpful to those striving to balance the requirements for a clean product and a clean environment. The interdisciplinary subject matter will appeal to scientists and engineers in all specialties ranging from materials and polymer sciences to chemistry and physics. It should also be useful to those developing new processes for other applications, and references given at the end of each chapter provide links to the wider body of SCF literature.
The book is organized with topics progressing from the fundamental nature of the supercritical state, through process conditions and materials interactions, to economic considerations. Practical examples are included to show how the technology has been successfully applied. The first four chapters consider principles governing SCF processing, detailing issues such as solubility, design for cleanability, and the dynamics of particle removal. The next three chapters discuss surfactants and microemulsions, SCF interaction with polymers, and the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (C02) as cleaning solvent. The closing chapters focus on more practical considerations such as scaleup, equipment costs, and financial analysis.
Many contributors to this book belong to the “Joint Association for the Advancement of SCF Technology” (JAAST), a consortium established
to fosterthe development and application of SCFs. Members of JAAST meet several times each year to compare results and exchange information on their research and development activities. A primary motivation for the formation of JAAST was the growing worldwide need to replace ozone-depleting compounds (ODCs) and smog-forming volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in manufacturing processes. Although aqueous cleaning has been adopted successfully for many applications, water is not a panacea and SCF technology has emerged as a leading alternative where aqueous processes cannot be used.
A substance is said to be in the supercritical state when its temperature and pressure are raised above the critical point. The state is characterized by low viscosities, low surface tensions, high diffusivities and near-liquid molar volumes, resulting in rapid wetting and excellent penetration— characteristics that are highly desirable for good cleaning performance. The critical point for C02 occurs at 31.3°C and 7.4 MPa, conditions readily attained with commercially available equipment. Carbon dioxide (C02) is also inert, ozone-friendly, noncombustible, naturally occurring, inexpensive, and does not contribute to smog. Thus, for many applications, supercritical C02 will predominate as the solvent of choice. Indeed the work of most authors has been primarily concerned with C02, although much of the discussion applies equally to many other SCFs.
Previous << 1 < 2 > 3 4 5 6 7 8 .. 101 >> Next