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Chemistry of Detonations - Kamlet M.J.

Kamlet M.J., Jacobs S.J. Chemistry of Detonations - Maryland, 1967. - 28 p.
Download (direct link): chemistryofdetonations1967.djvu
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+ (a\d-\-\b) C- (12)
It follows then that
2c'^2d-\~b
48a 4-46+56c+64d
(13)
* The position of this equilibrium being a sensitive function of Pc, however it would-tend to introduce complications at loading
densities below 1.0 g/cc.
S6c-8Sd-Sb ~ 2C+24+6 *
Table V. Comparison of Nvb with jVruby.
Explosive Po (Kef.) Nb *YRUBY % diff
HMX 1.903(16) 0.0338 0.0338 0.0
1.808(16) 0.0338 0.0
1.600(11) 0.0341 -0.9
1.400(11) 0.0348 -2.9
1.200(11) 0.0362 -6.6
1.000(11) 0.0381 -11.3
PETN 1.780(16) 0.0316 0.0318 -0.6
1.600(11) 0.0320 -1.3
1.400(11) 0.0333 -5.4
1.200(11) 0.0348 -9.2
Tetryl 1.730(16) 0.0270 0.0273 -1.1
1.642(16) 0.0276 -2.2
1.400(11) 0.0285 -5.5
1.200(11) 0.0301 -10.3
1.000(11) 0.0322 -16.1
TNT 1.651(16) 0.0253 0.0257 -1.6
1.600(11) 0.0258 -2.0
1.400(11) 0.0265 -4.8
1.200(11) 0.0277 -8.7
1.000(11) 0.0293 -13.7
DATB 1.780(11) 0.0278 0.0279 -0.4
1.600(11) 0.0281 -1.1
1.400(11) 0.0287 -3.1
1.200(11) 0.0298 -6.7
1.000(11) 0.0313 -11.2
* Solid carbon no longer appears; A'huby is about the same at lower densities.
Since
^-
[_AHf (detonation products)
/ (explosive)]
formula weight
(15a)
taking standard heats of formation for water (g), nitrogen, and carbon dioxide and assuming the / of solid carbon to be nil leads to
(?rb
28.96+47.0(d6/2) -\-AHf (explosive)
12a+6+14c+16fif
(15b)
ruby takes the NRT term into account in its detona-tion-energy computations; for purposes of convenience, we ignore it in the arbitrary calculations. Thus, rubys Q represents ?; ()*rb represents . The difference amounts to 10-15 cal/g or about 1% of () for a typical explosive.
Values of as calculated from Eq. (13) are compared m Table V with the corresponding ruby predictions for a variety of explosives at loading densities from 1.0 to 1.9 g/cc.
The tabulated data, which represent a fair sampling of ruby print-out results, confirm that Nn corresponds closely to Aruiiy for C-H-N-0 explosives at higher loading densities, and differs increasingly from Nkvuy as the densities decrease and Equilibrium (10) shifts to the left. From these a,nd ^ddition^J data, average
differences between and are: 0.3% at loading densities above 1.75 g/cc; .. 1.5% at 1.60-1.75 g/cc; 3.8% at 1.40 g/cc; 7.4%i\^t 1.20 g/cc; and
11.9% at 1.00 g/cc. Differences between Af*rb and /ruuy and between (>arb and (>huby are correspondingly small at the higher densities and become correspondingly greater as the densities decrease.
Because it was considered that the intrinsic inexactness of the computers input information led to uncertainties of at least 5% in rubys predictions of P, we originally felt that differences of about the same magnitude between arbitrary N, M, and Q and rubys values could be tolerated in the present study. For this reason the analyses of Tables IV and V led us to set Po= 1.4 g/cc as a tentative lower limit of applicability of the present caiculational method. The results below show this restriction to be unnecessary.
VII. RESULTS
Equations (8) and (13)-(15) provide the basis for a simple method of estimating detonation pressures, which requires as input information only the elemental composition, loading density, and an estimate of the heat of formation of the explosive. With the aid of a desk calculator, a typical calculation requires less than
10 min. For comparison, 2-4 min of machine time are required for a routine ruby computation on the IBM-7090 and a skilled operator requires an additional 10-15 min to prepare the input data and punch the cards.
Detonation pressures estimated by the simpler method are compared in Table VI with the corresponding ruby values for twenty-eight materials. Since we are at this point concerned only with reproducing ruby results, it is unimportant to the present discussion whether input heats of formation in the ruby computations are accurate; although the AH/ for picric acid in Ref.
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