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term to a culture. Until such time as a rigorous definition is possible, it would be most correct to use the term epithelial-like.
EuploidjaThe situation that exists when the nucleus of a cell contains exact multiples of the haploid number of chromosomes.
Explant jaTissue taken from its original site and transferred to an artificial medium for growth or maintenance.
Explant culturejaThe maintenance or growth of an explant in culture.
Feeder layer jaA layer of cells (usually lethally irradiated for animal cell culture) on which are cultured a fastidious cell type. See also nurse culture.
Fermenter^An apparatus for carrying out and regulating the growth of cells in suspension. Fermenters outfitted for use with mammalian cells will have automatic measurement and control of PO2, pH, and temperature. The configuration of the tanks, propellers, and so forth, used for mammalian cells will differ from those used for yeast or bacterial fermentations.
FibroblastlikejaResembling or characteristic of having the form or appearance of fibroblast cells. In order to define a cell as a fibroblast cell, it must possess characteristics typical of fibroblast cells. Often, one can be certain of the histological origin and/or function of the cells placed into culture and, under these conditions, one can be reasonably confident in designating the cells as fibroblast. It is incumbent upon the individual reporting on such cells to use as many parameters as possible in assigning this term to a culture. Until such time as a rigorous definition is possible, it would be most correct to use the term fibroblastlike.
Finite cell culture jaA culture that is capable of only a limited number of population doublings after which the culture ceases proliferation. See in vitro senescence.
HeterokaryonjaA cell possessing two or more genetically different nuclei in a common cytoplasm, usually derived as a result of cell-to-cell fusion.
HeteroploidjaThe term given to a cell culture when the cells comprising the culture possess nuclei containing chromosome numbers other than the diploid number. This is a term used only to describe a culture and is not used to describe individual cells. Thus, a heteroploid culture would be one that contains aneuploid cells.
HistiotypicjaThe in vitro resemblance of cells in culture to a tissue in form or function or both. For example, a suspension of fibroblastlike cells may secrete a glycosaminoglycan"Ccollagen matrix and the result is a structure resembling fibrous connective tissue, which is therefore histiotypic. This term is not meant to be used along with the word culture. Thus, a tissue culture system demonstrating form and function typical of cells in vivo would be said to be histiotypic.
HomokaryonjaA cell possessing two or more genetically identical nuclei in a common cytoplasm, derived as a result of cell-to-cell fusion.
Hybrid cellj aThe term used to describe the mononucleate cell that results from the fusion of two different cells, leading to a formation of a synkaryon.
HybridomajaThe cell that results from the fusion of an antibody-producing tumor cell (myeloma) and an antigenically stimulated normal plasma cell. Such cells are constructed because they produce a single antibody directed against the antigen epitope that stimulated the plasma cell. This antibody is referred to as a monoclonal antibody.
Hyperplasia* jaAn increase in cell number in a tissue or culture.
Hypertrophy* jaAn increase in cell size (volume). Hypertrophy results in an increase in protein'CDNA ratio in the cells and can result in an increase in the surface area of cells in culture. A change in cell surface due to spreading without an increase in protein'Ccell is not hypertrophy.
Immortalization jaThe attainment of a finite cell culture, whether by perturbation or intrinsically, of the attributes of a continuous cell line. An immortalized cell is not necessarily one that is neoplastically or malignantly transformed.
Immortal cell culturejaSee continuous cell culture.
Induction jaInitiation of a structure, organ, or process in vitro.
In vitro neoplastic transformation jaThe acquisition by cultured cells of the property to form neoplasms, benign or malignant, when inoculated into animals. Many transformed cell populations that arise in vitro intrinsically, or through deliberate manipulation by the investigator, produce only benign tumors, which show no local invasion or metastasis following animal inoculation. If there is supporting evidence, the term in vitro malignant neoplastic transformation or in vitro malignant transformation can be used to indicate that an injected cell line does indeed invade or metastasize.
In vitro senescence* jaIn vertebrate cell cultures, especially human-derived cultures, the property attributable to finite cell cultures, namely, their inability to grow beyond a finite number of population doublings. Neither invertebrate nor plant cell cultures exhibit this property. Rodent cell lines established in serum-free conditions also frequently do not exhibit senescence.