Download (direct link):
Pennica, D., Wood, W., and Chien, K., 1996, Cardiotropin-l: A multifunctional cytokine that signals via LIF receptor-gp 130 dependent pathways, Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 7:81"C91.
Portalano, S., McLachlan, S., and Rapoport, B., 1993, High affinity, thyroid specific human autoantibodies displayed on the surface of filamentous phage use V genes similar to other autoantibodies, J. Immunol. 151:2839"C2851.
Werther, W., Gonzalez, T., O'Connor, S., McCabe, S., Chan, B., 1996, Humanization of an antilymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 monoclonal antibody and reengineering of the humanized antibody for binding to rhesus LFA-1, J. Immunol. 157:4986"C4995.
Adventitious jaDeveloping from unusual points of origin, such as embryos from sources other than zygotes. This term can also be used to describe agents that contaminate cell cultures.
Anchorage-dependent cells or culturesjaCells or cultures derived from them that will grow, survive, or maintain function only when attached to a surface such as glass or plastic. The use of this term does not imply that the cells are normal or that they are or are not neoplastically transformed.
AneuploidjaThe situation that exists when the nucleus of a cell does not contain an exact multiple of the haploid number of chromosomes, one or more chromosomes being present in a greater or a lesser number than the rest. The chromosomes may or may not show rearrangements.
Asepsis jaWithout infection or contaminating microorganisms.
Aseptic technique japrocedures used to prevent the introduction of fungi, bacteria, viruses, mycoplasma, or other microorganisms into cell, tissue, and organ culture. Although these procedures are used to prevent microbial contamination of cultures, they also prevent cross-contamination of cell cultures as well. These procedures may or may not exclude the introduction of infectious molecules.
Attachment efficiency jaThe percentage of cells plated (seeded, inoculated) that attach to the surface of the culture vessel within a specified period of time. The conditions under which such a determination is made should always be stated.
Autocrine celljaIn animals, a cell that produces hormones, growth factors, or other signaling substances for which it also expresses the corresponding receptors. See also endocrine and paracrine.
Axenic culturejaA culture without foreign or undesired life forms. An axenic culture may include the purposeful cocultivation of different types of cells, tissues, or organisms.
Cell bank*jaA number of vials of frozen cells that have been derived from a single, well-characterized cell culture and maintained at liquid nitrogen temperatures. Over a pe-
The definitions have been excerpted from "Terminology Associated with Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture,
Molecular Biology and Molecular Genetics," In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. 26:97'C101, 1990, with permission of the Tissue Culture Association. Definitions marked with an asterisk (*) are those of the authors.
riod of years, cells can be thawed and grown from the bank that should have the same characteristics as the original culture from which the bank was prepared.
Cell culturejaTerm used to denote the maintenance or cultivation of cells in vitro, including the culture of single cells. In cell cultures, the cells are no longer organized into tissues.
Cell generation timejaThe interval between consecutive divisions of a cell. This interval can best be determined at present with the aid of cinephotomicrography. This term is not synonymous with population doubling time.
Cell hybridization jaThe fusion of two or more dissimilar cells leading to the formation of a synkaryon.
Cell linejaA cell line arises from a primary culture at the time of the first successful subculture. The term cell line implies that cultures from it consist of lineages of cells originally present in the primary culture. The terms finite or continuous are used as prefixes if the status of the culture is known. If not, the term line will suffice. The term continuous line replaces the term established line. In any published description of a culture, one must make every attempt to publish the characterization or history of the culture. If such has already been published, a reference to the original publication must be made. In obtaining a culture from another laboratory, the proper designation of the culture, as originally named and described, must be maintained and any deviations in cultivation from the original must be reported in any publication.
Cell strain jaA cell strain is derived either from a primary culture or a cell line by the selection or cloning of cells having specific properties or markers. In describing a cell strain, its specific features must be defined. The terms finite or continuous are to be used as prefixes if the status of the culture is known. If not, the term strain will suffice. In any published description of a cell strain, one must make every attempt to publish the characterization or history of the strain. If such has already been published, a reference to the original publication must be made. In obtaining a culture from another laboratory, the proper designation of the culture, as originally named and described, must be maintained and any deviations in cultivation from the original must be reported in any publication.