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Vapor Density, air = 1 6
Vapor Pressure, approx. (mm Hg)
@20°C [68°F] 0.01
@120°C [248°F] 11
@130°C [266°F] 16
a ARCO Chemical specification b Decomposes
c The flammability properties of this material (or any other material) are not intended to reflect the fire hazards presented by any resultant cellular or foamed plastic product.
FIG. C-28 Physical properties of TDI-80 produced at the Lake Charles, La., plant. (Source: ARCO Chemical.)
Chemicals (Toxic), Handling C-45
FIG. C-29 A drum for TDI containment. (Source: ARCO Chemical.)
dealing with such situations, see “What to Do In Case of. . .” below or call the manufacturer.
ARCO Chemical TDI may be obtained in tank cars, tank trucks, cylinders, or drums from this plant or various worldwide distribution centers and terminals. For export, ARCO Chemical has the capacity to ship TDI in bulk and full container lots of drums via ocean vessels.
Cylinders: In the United States, ARCO Chemical provides TDI in carbon steel cylinders that contain 230 U.S. gal and are used at 20-30 psig. Some cylinders with a capacity of 263 U.S. gal and a pressure rating of 275 psig are also available. Intended to be moved with a forklift, the cylinders have two-way-entry metal skids.
Tank Cars: TDI is most frequently shipped in 20,000-gal cars, although other sizes are available upon request. All cars are insulated and have exterior heating coils. All cars are padded with nitrogen.
Specific arrival temperatures with tank car deliveries cannot be guaranteed.
Tank Trucks: TDI is shipped in 4000- to 5000-gal trucks. Shipment weights range from 40,000 to 50,000 lb, depending on the point of origin and road weight regulations.
TDI trucks are equipped for top-unloading only and have compressors and air driers to maintain product integrity. Pumps can be made available upon request. Tanks are constructed of stainless steel; all are insulated and have exterior heating coils.
Drums: TDI is available in 55-gal nonreturnable drums, made of 18-gauge steel (minimum), with phosphatized interiors. Drums contain 551 lb (250 kg) of TDI (see Fig. C-29).
Ocean Vessels: Large chemical companies have the capability to serve world markets with shipments of large quantities in bulk or in drums.
Toluene diisocyanate is regulated by the Department of Transportation (DOT) as a Packaging Group II Toxic. Since TDI can cause serious injury to the lungs, eyes, and skin, all persons near the unloading site must wear protective clothing and equipment. They must observe the safe handling procedures and practices
C-46 Chemicals (Toxic), Handling
FIG. C-30 A TDI tank car. (Source: ARCO Chemical.)
prescribed in ARCO Chemical’s Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) and product literature. “TDI Safety and Handling” below should be carefully read by, and explained to, all employees. For additional employee training, large chemical companies offer videotapes covering handling procedures.
Customers should give careful consideration to the way that TDI will be received. Adequate facilities must be provided (see “Storage of TDI” below). Ample water should be available at the unloading site, including a shower equipped with a quick-opening deluge head and an eyewash fountain.
The site should also be equipped with an inert gas such as nitrogen or dry air for use in padding the car and purging lines.
Note: While nitrogen is preferred, all future references to “inert gas” should be taken to mean either nitrogen or dry air (-40°C/°F dew point), and all references to nitrogen should be taken to mean that dry air may also be used.
Unloading tank cars
TDI tank cars. Specific manufacturers generally operate a large fleet of dedicated TDI tank cars (see Fig. C-30). Both general-purpose and modified DOT IIIA cars are currently in service. The modified DOT IIIA cars have the following features:
¦ 9/16 in tank shell thickness
¦ Full 1/2 in protective headshields
¦ No bottom valve outlet; top unloading only
¦ All stainless steel fittings
¦ Safety valves; not safety vents
¦ All top fittings are mounted on a 20-bolt cover plate, inside a protective housing (bonnet)
¦ Hot-dipped galvanized steel safety grating
¦ Two dip legs (eduction pipes), either can be used for unloading (see Fig. C-31)
Most tank cars have a capacity of 20,000 gallons. Figure C-32 shows a typical arrangement of the fittings found under the bonnet on the top of the tank car. In