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FIG. C-21 Cutaway view of Merco® centrifuge with a special wash inlet. (Source: Dorr-Oliver Inc.)
In the process of washing, the most important thing is to remove the contaminants as completely as possible. Thus, the use of large quantities of wash are generally of benefit. However, we often want to conserve the wash fluid for economic reasons. Accordingly, a balance is struck and the degree of efficiency of washing becomes important.
In the process of classification, the most important thing is to remove all of the slow settling solids but to not remove the other solids. Thus, the appropriate quantity of wash has to be sought by testing.
Reference and Additional Reading
1. Bloch, H., and Soares, C. M., Process Plant Machinery, 2d ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, 1998.
Ceramic is a porcelainlike material that has better corrosion resistance than most metals, so ceramics are used to coat items such as turbine blades. Ceramics used to be prone to cracks due to brittleness, since ceramics lack the ductility of metals. Product improvements in this material have made major strides recently, and operating temperatures for ceramics keep rising. Various manufacturers have their own customized ceramics and their manuals and specifications should be consulted if there is a question or an overtemperature problem suspected.
Chemical Cleaning (see also Cleaning; cleaning information in many other sections)
The range of chemical cleaners (routine and also used preparatory to most overhaul and repair processes) has grown recently to bewildering proportions. Of prime consideration on the overhaul facility’s requirement list is lack of carcinogen content and other increasingly enforced environmental regulations. A facility setting up cleaning facilities should consider not only existing legislation but also potential or proposed changes in environmental law before investment.
The end user’s requirement for time between overhauls is greatly reduced with an effective wash system for his or her engine. If the system can be used online, the advantage is still further enhanced. Wash systems are generally designed and manufactured by firms that specialize in this work. Each turbine model’s reaction to a system is different. Nozzle size and angle, fluid rate, and so forth have to vary with each model for maximum effectiveness. A manufacturer with highly successful wash systems might find that they fail entirely with a new engine model. Most OEMs generally put their own nameplates of “ownership” on their subsupplier’s wash systems.
Chemical Complex; (Petro)Chemical Complex; Chemical Plant
A petrochemical complex (a specific kind of chemical complex) is generally a large facility that may encompass more than one company. The complex may process upstream petroleum products (primarily oil and natural gas) into complex downstream chemical and plastic products. As an illustration, a product flowchart (Fig. C-22) from the Petrochemical Company of Singapore (PCS), indicating numerous downstream companies, is included. The large number of companies and products resulting from the complex should be noted. (All acronyms used
Chemical Complex; (Petro)Chemical Complex; Chemical Plant C-39
Petrochemical Corporation of Singapore
(Private) Limited (PCS)
Plan! 1 450,000
Plant II 515,000
Plant I 225,000
Plant II 257,000
Plant 1 Butadiene
Plant II MTBE 66,000
Butene • 1 32,000
Thermal Benzene 213,000
Cracked Toluene 115,000
Gasoline Xylene 64,000
Unit: Tonnes Per Year
The Polyolefin Company (Singapore) Pte Ud (TPC)
Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) 250,000
L*iear Low Density 150.000
PhAps Petroleum Singapore Chemicals
(Pnvate) Limited (PPSC)
Linear Polyethylene (LPE>
Plant I 130,000
Plant II 200.000
Seraya Chemicals Singapore 4 Re} Lid (SCSL)
I Styrene Monomer (SM)
Ethylene Glycols (Sogapo'e) Pie Lid (EGS)
Ethylene Oxxte (EO) Ethylene Glycols (EG) EO Derivatives
45.000 122 000 35 000
Elhoxytates Manufacturing Private Limited lEMPL)
Hoechst Acety s (Singapore) Pte Ltd (HAS)
j Vinyl Acetate Monomer (VAM>
The Polyolelin Company (Str*gapore) Pie Ltd (TPC)
I Polypropylene (PP)
Seraya Chemcais Singapore (Pie) Ltd (SCSL)