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Chromatografy Methods for Environmental - Ando D.J.

Ando D.J. Chromatografy Methods for Environmental - Wiley publishing , 2003. - 265 p.
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Methods for Environmental Trace Analysis. John R. Dean
Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
ISBNs: 0-470-84421-3 (HB); 0-470-84422-1 (PB)
Chapter 6
Liquids - Natural and Waste Waters
Learning Objectives
• To understand the need for separation and/or pre-concentration for metal ions in solution.
• To understand the theory of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE).
• To be able to carry out LLE in a safe and controlled manner.
• To understand the role of ion-exchange in terms of metal separation and/or pre-concentration.
• To appreciate the role of co-precipitation for pre-concentration of metal ions in solution.
6.1 Introduction
The ideal scenario in the analysis of liquid samples for trace, minor and major metals is that the analytical technique chosen to perform the analysis requires no sample pre-treatment or perhaps just a simple filtration (0.2 ^m) of the sample to remove particulates prior to introduction into the chosen instrument. If this was the case, then no further need for this chapter would exist. However, reality is often very different and even the most sensitive of analytical techniques e.g. inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) (see Chapter 11) may require some additional sample pre-treatment, e.g. separation and/or pre-concentration. It should be remembered that any form of separation and/or pre-concentration can also have the same effect on a potential contaminant as well as on the metal of interest. Great care is required, therefore, in the
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