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The first of the three genome-wide maps was produced by the Cooperative Human Linkage Center (CHLC; Murray et al., 1994). Last updated in 1997, the CHLC has identified, genotyped, and/or mapped over 3,300 microsatellite repeat markers. The CHLC Web site currently holds many linkage maps, including maps comprised solely of CHLC-derived markers and maps combining CHLC markers with those from other sources, including most markers in CEPHdb. CHLC markers can be recognized by unique identifiers that contain the nucleotide code for the tri- or te-tranucleotide repeat units. For example, CHLC.GATA49A06 (D1S1608) contains a repeat unit of GATA, whereas CHLC.ATA28C07 (D1S1630) contains an ATA repeat. There are over 10,000 markers on the various linkage maps at CHLC, and most CHLC markers were genotyped in 15 CEPH pedigrees. The highest resolution CHLC maps have an average map distance of 1 -2 cM between markers. Some of the maps contain markers in well-supported unique positions along with other markers placed into intervals.
Another set of genome-wide linkage maps was produced in 1996 by the group at Genethon (Dib et al., 1996). This group has identified and genotyped over 7,800 dinucleotide repeat markers and has produced maps containing only Genethon markers. These markers also have unique identifiers; each marker name has the symbols ‘‘AFM’’ at the beginning of the name. The Genethon map contains 5,264 genotyped in 8-20 CEPH pedigrees. These markers have been placed into 2,032 well-supported
MAPPING PROJECTS AND ASSOCIATED RESOURCES
map positions, with an average map resolution of 2.2 cM. Because of homogeneity of their marker and linkage data and the RH and YAC-based mapping efforts at Genethon that incorporate many of their polymorphic markers, the Genethon map has become the most widely utilized human linkage map.
The third and most recent set of human maps was produced at the Center for Medical Genetics at the Marshfield Medical Research Foundation (Broman et al.,
1998). This group has identified over 300 dinucleotide repeats and has constructed high-density maps using over 8,000 markers. Like the CHLC maps, the Marshfield maps include their own markers as well as others, such as markers from CHLC and Genethon. These maps have an average resolution of 2.3 cM per map interval. Markers developed at the Marshfield Foundation have an MFD identifier at the beginning of their names. The authors caution on their Web site that because only eight of the CEPH families were used for the map construction, the orders of some of the markers are not well determined. The Marshfield Web site provides a useful utility for displaying custom maps that contain user-specified subsets of markers.
Two additional linkage maps have been developed exclusively for use in performing efficient large-scale and/or genome-wide genotyping. The ABI PRISM linkage mapping sets are composed of dinucleotide repeat markers derived from the Genethon linkage map. The ABI marker sets are available at three different map resolutions (20, 10, and 5 cM), containing 811, 400, and 218 markers, respectively. The Center for Inherited Disease Research (CIDR), a joint program sponsored by The Johns Hopkins University and the National Institutes of Health, provides a gen-otyping service that uses 392 highly polymorphic tri- and tetranucleotide repeat markers spaced at an average resolution of 9 cM. The CIDR map is derived from the Weber v.9 marker set, with improved reverse primers and some additional markers added to fill gaps.
Although each of these maps is extremely valuable, it can be very difficult to determine marker order and intermarker distance between markers that are not all represented on the same linkage map. The MAP-O-MAT Web site at Rutgers University is a marker-based linkage map server that provides several map-specific queries. The server uses genotypes for over 12,000 markers (obtained from the CEPH database and from the Marshfield Foundation) and the CRI-MAP computer program to estimate map distances, perform two-point analyses, and assess statistical support for order for user-specified maps (Matise and Gitlin, 1999). Thus, rather than attempting to integrate markers from multiple maps by rough interpolation, likelihood analyses can be easily performed on any subset of markers from the CEPH database.
High-resolution linkage maps have also been constructed for many other species. These maps are often the most well-developed resource for animal species’ whose genome projects are in early stages. The mouse and rat both have multiple genome-wide linkage maps (see MGD and the Rat Genome Database); other species with well-developed linkage maps include zebrafish, cat, dog, cow, pig, horse, sheep, goat, and chicken (O’Brien et al., 1999).
Radiation Hybrid Map Resources
Radiation hybrid maps provide an intermediate level of resolution between linkage and physical maps. Therefore, they are helpful for sequence alignment and will aid in completion of the human genome sequencing project. Three human whole-genome panels have been prepared with different levels of X-irradiation and are available for